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ing in attendance on a patient labourin under a contagious dis ease, he or the insection, which, insidiously oned its ravages, till Febru ary, iso), when death released him from his sufferings. Multis illebonis flebilis occidit, Nulliflebilior quam mihi.

When the Revolution took place in France, and flocks of emigrants arrived in England, a great number of the clergy and others localized themselves in Soho, and many sought to gain a meage livelihood by teaching French and Latin. Various announcements were suspended in Callow's shop, offering the services of the parties to pupils and others who wished to learn or improve themselves in those languages. Perhaps Callow availed himself of this sort of aid to acquire moreknowledge of the contents of Latin and foreign books ; at all events, either from such instructions or from the attention he was compelled to pay to title-pages and indexes, or from the various critical remarks made by customers and others, he actually acquired more information respecting the contents of learned books than might be expected from his original education and employments. During all this time Mrs. Callow was the assiduous adviser and assistant of her husband ; they lived happily, and were much respected by their neighbours and all around them. Among the books which came originally with Mrs. Callow, there was a large number of volumes of sermons, &c.; these did not prove a very marketable commodity in Crown Court; a few were usually displayed in the window, but the greater number were deposited in the garret. It happened one day that a clergyman was observed turning over the leaves of some of the religious books in the window; he asked the price of them, and inquired if they had any more to dispose of, and if he could see them. He was told there were many more in the garret; that they could not be conveniently looked out then, but if he would take the trouble to call again they should be ready for his inspection. A day was appointed; Mrs. Callow was indefatigable in rummaging out all the old volumes of

sermons and divinity that she could find, and the clergyman agreed to take the whole lot at a small sum per volume. The sum altogether amounted to about 5l. and great was the good lady's delight at having made such a bargain. It proved that this clergyman was the Rev. Vicesimus Knox, who, having compiled and profitably edited the “Elegant Extracts in Verse,” the “Elegant Extracts in Prose,” and the “Elegant Epistles,” was engaged in preparing for the press a compilation of sermons, which he afterwards published under the title of “Family Lectures.” Callow’s business increased so much, and the house in which he resided was so loaded with bookshelves, (for every corner was filled; even the staircase was made to sustain its portion of shelves,) as to render it sometimes a matter of discussion whether it would not be advantageous to remove to a larger house; but to this there were various objections; Crown Court had many attractions, it was quiet and retired, a good business had grown up there, which was carried on at a moderate expense : though often talked of, therefore, no determined step as to change of residence was adopted. Nor is it probable that a change would have added to the happiness of Callow or his wife; for at this period of their lives they possessed as much of comfort and enjoyment as their wishes could well embrace. Besides the house in Crown Court, where by day he was occupied in business, Callow had taken a cottage situated in a nursery garden at Brompton, in which Mrs. Callow was emancipated from her close attention to business, and where he could of an evening repose and rusticate. It was indeed a cottage of very small dimensions; but fortunately much of happiness may be met with in a small cottage. In this casula, this smallest of small retreats, was stored a small collection of “book rarities;” and, though he could not boast of many of the “rarissimi,” and of only a few “ editiones principes,” and those chiefly medical, yet here was the prized first edition of the Life of William Bowyer, and other scarce and choice English publications, in which Callow took delight, and the beauties of which he was well

able to appreciate. This was probably the most happy portion of his life. But this period of happiness and exemption from anxiety and care was not to continue long; the health of Mrs. Callow began to give way, and neither the assiduities of her indulgent husband nor the skill of her medical friends could ward off the afflictive stroke—she died in the year 1816, and was interred in the churchyard of St. Anne, Soho. Circumstances not long afterwards compelled a removal from Crown Court. The clean, well-conducted, genteel they might be called, shopkeepers, began gradually to disappear; the shops were occupied by a less respectable grade of persons; there was more of noise, more of dirt and disquiet, than heretofore, and Callow was under the necessity of leaving a place where he had enjoyed much of happiness and good fortune. Here it is true he had met with difficulties, but those difficulties had been mastered, and he had the gratifying reflection that he had risen to distinction and consequence, in a position which in his early years held forth no flattering promises of advancement or success; and he unwillingly withdrew from the spot whence his first and most durable pleasures arose. The house to which he removed was in Prince's Street, the north-west corner of Gerard Street. This removal took place about Christmas, 1818, some time previous to which Callow had married a second wife. This change of condition did not contribute to his comfort or happiness. It rather tended to increase his expenses, and to withdraw him from that close attention to business which had distinguished him through life. The little cottage at Brompton was given up, and a more expensive house entered upon in Church Street, Chelsea, and it was obvious to his friends that Callow had not the same freedom from anxiety as formerly. Age marked itself more distinctly upon him, and his countenance was careworn and oppressed. In 1824 Callow retired from business, leaving as his successor Mr. John Wilson, who has since transferred the establishment to Mr. John Churchill. In a few years Callow was

deprived of his second wife, and in the year 1834, in very moderate reduced circumstances, he died at the age of 75 years. He was interred in Sir Hans Sloane's burying-ground, King's Road, Chelsea. Yours, &c. S. M.


AT a time when the costume of the Middle Ages attracts so much attention as at the present, it is desirable to ascertain the precise meaning of the several terms by which the different parts of dress and armour were distinguished. A well-executed glossary of them would be a valuable acquisition, but research and discrimination would be indispensable for it.

Not to occupy more of your columns by such remarks, permit me to say a few words upon the coif de mailles. Not long ago I gave some attention to the various kinds of armour used in the 12th and 13th centuries, and satisfied myself, on what I thought good grounds, that the coif de mailles and the chaperon or capuchon de mailles were essentially different; the former being a bowl-shaped cap, and the latter (for the chaperon and capuchon were I think identical) a hood covering the neck as well as the head. Yet I observe the term coif is not unfrequently used by modern archaeologists to designate the hood. I will not trouble you with instances in detail. That this and some other terms should be misapplied in the Hints of the Cambridge Camden Society, (see 4th edit. pp. 36 and 37,) ought not perhaps to be a matter of surprise, as ancient armour is there a very subordinate subject; and it is only on account of the extensive dissemination of that useful little work that l here refer to it: but I see in the last No. of the Archaeological Journal, p. 199, what I should have called the chaperon de mailles, in the Trumpington brass, is called the coif de mailles by the eminent Director of the Society of Antiquaries, to whom we are indebted for the article on Brasses, and whose general accuracy and extensive acquaintance with such subjects make the matter important enough to be, by your permission, noticed in your pages.

The coif was, as I understand it, a skull-cap of mail (de mailles) or of plate (de fer), and worn generally over the upper part of the chaperon de mailles. Instances will, I think, readily occur to such of your readers as are familiar with effigies of the 13th century. In the Temple Church are two examples of the coif de mailles, and also, if I mistake not, two of a peculiar kind of coif de fer. The chapel de fer was conical, or nearly so, and is thus distinguished from the coif de fer. If, contrary to my conviction, the coif and chaperon de mailles are identical, I would ask, what is the name of that piece of armour which I suppose to be the coif de mailles I am unwilling to extend this letter, but must request leave to add a remark on the genouillieres represented in the Trumpington brass. Whether those knee-pieces ought to be termed genouillieres or poleyns I will not stop to inquire; the former term is the more significant, and it is appropriate, if it be not exclusively applicable to the armour for the knees at a later period. What I would know is this; supposing, as I think is the fact, that such coverings for the knees were not parts of the chaussons, of what material were they made 2 Some, and among them the gentleman above mentioned, say, of plate. If so, how could the knee be bent? That they did not prevent this necessary use of the knee might be expected; and it is shown by several effigies in which knees so covered are represented in that position. I have not been able to satisfy myself either as to the material or construction of these defences. Perhaps some of your readers can explain them. Yours, &c. W. S. W. MR. URBAN, Nov. 25. UNDERSTANDING that the church of Aspley Guise, Bedfordshire, is about to be rebuilt, I presume to send you a description. I am not aware why it is proposed to be rebuilt, in place of enlargement. I remember that the present exemplary Archdeacon of Bedford, Dr. Bonney, recommended a new aisle on the south side, for which there was sufficient room. No doubt there may be very good reasons for a difGENT. Mag. Vol. XXIII.

ferent arrangement. The church was certainly much too small for the increased population of the parish, amounting to 1100 or thereabouts, and a very considerable portion, nearly all the gallery, was occupied by the inmates of a boarding school in the village. This church was pretty fully described in “Parry's History of Woburn, the Abbey, and Russell Family,” &c. 1831, p. 151. It consists of a short nave and north aisle, with three arches only, a middle-sized chancel, and a tower, which will probably remain. It is of decent height for the church, with a very slender leaded spire, and of great strength, the walls towards the top being a yard and a half thick. It contains four bells, the three first not very good, but the tenor, weighing 16 cwt. of pretty good and deep tone. There is a view of this church in the Antiquarian and Topographical Cabinet, from a drawing by G. Shephard, taken from a hill above the west end, in which the tower formed a prominent and picturesque object. The church is dedicated to St. Botolph (a saint, according to my own experience, rather more popular in the eastern and north-eastern parts of this kingdom than any other). From the shape of the arches and the octagonal columns, I should suppose it not to be older than the 15th century. Octagonal columns, apparently of the later period, are found in the church of Flemersham, Beds; which village contained the seat of the late excellent antiquary and botanist Mr. Marsh, a most pleasing specimen, to all who ever saw him, of quiet primitive simplicity, varied learning, and Christian kindness. The west front is a grand specimen of the Early English. There is also a window of two lights on the south side of the chancel at Aspley, the flowing contour of the upper part of which seems to indicate the 14th century. Also an altar tomb in a continuation of the north aisle, with a recumbent effigy in chain mail, supposed to be that of one of the Guises, of about the time of Edward the Third. Arms on the tomb, On a bend, three escallop shells in a bordure engrailed. The other monuments are three. On the north side of the chancel a brass tablet for William Stone, F

of Burnham-by-Sea, Norfolk, and about thirty years rector of this parish, in the 17th century, with the following excellent Latin hexameters: Es M1 H1 MoRs Luchu M. Subjacet inclusus Gulielmus Stonus in urna, Cui natale solum Norfolcia, villaque Burnham Oceanum juxta; non ampla stirpe creatus; Weste Magisterii quem Cantabrigia cinxit: Sederathic hyemes deciester-quinque peractas, Septuaginta duos vitae compleverat annos, Cum tria Jacobus moderasset lustra BritanSpecertafidens virtute resurgere Christi, [nos; Et cum coelicolis aeternam ducere vitam. Aheavy marble monumentin the north aisle for a person who was killed by the overturn of a carriage, “Currus eberso;” a large and handsome tabular one for the late respected and generous Mr. William Wright, who is styled the “second founder of Aspley School.” This school, a private grammar, &c. school, was established soon after the commencement of the last century, and was ornamented with extensive and appropriate buildings by Mr. Wright, and has had formerly upwards of 200 scholars. Many persons from every part of the kingdom, including, no doubt, some of your readers, have been educated at it, also many respectable foreigners. The present master and proprietor is the Rev. R. Pain, B.C.L. of Pembroke Coll. Oxon. There is one benefaction” of about 12l. per ann. for bread, I think on St. Thomas's Day; and a field of two acres is left, for taking care of the church clock, to the parish clerk. The only feature which redeems the church from insignificance is, or was, a double tier of small circular windows, filled with quatrefoils, under the battlements of the nave. In the churchyard is the tomb of Lieut.-Col. Arthur Owen, of a Welsh family, a former inhabitant of this parish, much esteemed for the honour and humanity of his disposition. Aspley is situated in Manshend Hundred and Deanery of Flitt, 2 miles N. of Woburn. It receives its second

name from the Gyse or Guise family. The manor was anciently in the Beauchamps, as parcel of the Barony of Bedford. Simon de Beauchamp surrendered it by way of a composition to Guy de Walery, who had laid claim to his whole barony: Reginald de St. Walery gave it to Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, and Grand Justiciary of England, whose widow, Margaret, dau. of the King of Scots, died seised of it as her dower, in 1259. After this Aspley became the property and chief seat of the Gyses or Guises, ancestors of the Gloucestershire family of that name. Anselm de Gyse had this manor in marriage with a daughter of Hubert de Burgh above named. In 1540 John Guise, esq. gave the manor of Aspley to Henry VIII. in exchange for lands in Gloucestershire. It is probable that the King granted it to Sir Ralph Sadleir, whose descendants are still possessed of it.

Aspley had for a short time a market, perhaps for about fifty years, which speedily fell into disuse or decay, on the grant of a market to the Abbot of Woburn (two miles off.) It has been popularly believed that the market was transferred to Woburn, but this is a mistake; the fact simply being, as Browne Willis once observed to an inhabitant of Aspley, “You see the Abbot’s market swallowed up yours.”

Aspley has no antiquarian relics, unless the fossil earth or petrified wood be considered so, as having been commemorated by Drayton in his “Poly-Olbion.” “That little Aspley's earth we anciently

enstyle, Midst sundry other, things a wonder of our isle.”

The fuller's earth pits are not now in this parish. There exists only a hollow filled with trees and brushwood, which was the original one. Those now in use, though only about 200 yards distant, are in the parish of Wondent and county of Buckinglam.

* Would it not be well, when any one is inclined thus to lay up treasures “where no moth or rust can consume,” if any landholder, by joining with him and obtaining deservedly nearly half the praise, should grant him a rent-charge, the surest investment, for a fair sum ?

† In this parish—the conscientious and talented Rector of which, the Rev. J. Fisher, is not unknown in the literary world—is a good instance of compensation to the poor on enclosure. About forty or fifty years ago a portion of heath, on which the poor had the right of digging The parish of Aspley, containing above 2000 acres, is very healthy, the soil being principally sand and gravel, and the water lying low down, from 30 to 60 feet. It is chiefly celebrated for its beautiful “wood,” which was diffusely celebrated by the late Mr. J. H. Wiffen in a beautiful poem in the Spenserian stanza, entitled “Aonian Hours.” It is very extensive, abounding with oaks and various other trees, including alleys of larch, and, in one very extensive dell, cedars of Lebanon. Above is a riding, from which about 20 church towers and spires can be seen on a clear day. In this wood are also a profusion of that pleasant and wholesome wild fruit called here hackle-berries, and elsewhere whortleberries and bil-berries; also “lilies of the valley,” (for which it is especially famed,) wild hyacinths, primroses, &c. &c. and those poetical accessories the “nightingale” and the “glow-worm.” The “Black Watch,”—Sidier Dhu —now the 42nd Highlanders, great part of which mutinied from an encampment at Highgate, after having been scandalously and cruelly treated by the ministers of George II. in being lured to London for the purpose of being sent abroad after a solemn promise to the contrary, are said to have parted in this wood, after passing through the Duke of Bedford’s park, and to have stayed some time in its recesses. And it is believed that some little action took place between them and a party of the King's troops, either in its north-western part, near the beautiful heathy dell, or the immediate vicinity. The farms, at least those principally within the parish, are generally small, there being only one, I believe, exceeding 150 acres. There are, however, some large plantations of fir and larch, besides the great wood. Game is very plentiful. Of water there are only a few very small ponds. There is one

turf, was conveyed to the then Duke of Bedford on condition that he should deliver yearly, for ever, 100 tons of coals, free of carriage, to the poor of Wavendon. As coals are sold there in the winter to the poor by the petty dealers at 1s. 9d, or 2s. per cwt. it is considered that they have gained by the bargain.

windmill. I am not certain whether there is anything worthy of being called a brook—of which there are some considerable ones with mills on them in the neighbourhood—flowing through the parish. Partly in this parish, and partly in

that of Wavendon, lies the hamlet of Hog's-stye-end, containing about 300 inhabitants, a small number of respectable houses, and an ancient Quakers’ meeting-house, in a pleasant situation, of homely and dwelling

house appearance, said to be coeval with the rise of that respectable body. There is also a good inn, which has

also been a boarding school, which,

before the railroad days, had a con

siderable traffic. The hamlet stands

on the old high road to Manchester,

Liverpool, Chester, &c. which runs

through Woburn and Newport Pag

nell. The former interesting little

town, well worthy a visit, has also

suffered heavily, like some others, from the “mammon ’’ of railway speculation, now needing all the patronage and influence which can be afforded

by the Bedford family, its natural pro

tectors, some of whom have done so

much for its ornament and benefit.

As, however, this name appeared

cacophonous to its more polite inhabit

ants, attempts have been made more than once to “reform it altogether” to

“Woburn Sands,” or “ The Sands,”

and partly with success. Still

“Quo semel est imbuta recens servabit Testa diu;” [odorem

and “Hog's-stye-end,” vulgarly dissyllabled into “Hogs-teen'd,” yet lives.

At Aspley is a strong petrifying spring, from which the petrified ladder at Woburn Abbey was taken. Aspley is well known for a considerable distance round as conspicuous for the number of genteel families which it contains. Here was, but I believe no longer is, the library of the late R. T. How, esq. an excellent and benevolent specimen (of which also there was another) of the Society of Friends, containing five or six thousand volumes of various descriptions, including illustrated French, Italian, and Dutch ones, a few rich illuminated manuscripts, and sixty editions and translations of the Bible. Amongst the volumes was a grand folio of great size and thickness,

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