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1751. 4. DESCRIPTION of CLAREMONT.
535 next morning to be his bail ; after which no expence to render it as agreeable as possia the colonel paid another visit to Amelia, ble; tho', as different persons have had the and fat with Mrs. Atkinson, and her, till contrivance of his gardens and buildings, it had Aruck one. After he was gone, there is no uniform cafte to be found in Mrs. Atkinson observed to Amelia, that eithes. But it must be observed, that before, the colonel was certainly in love with some the year 1747, great improvements were body, and that the suspected it was with made ; a great addition of land taken in z her. In the morning the colonel was at. A and the old parts of the park and gardens, tended by the faithful ferjeanc Atkinson, were so much altered as to have quite a new who cold him, that he had procured an appearance. The entrance into the park unexceptionable house-keeper to join with was brought nearer the great road, and two him in a bail. bond for the discharge of lodges built on the fides of the gates ; and Mr. Booth ; but instead of an answer, the many buildings have been creded in the colonel began to excol the beauty of Ame. park and gardens ; among the rest, fia, to bewail her misfortune in being mar. lofty summer. house, which affords a most ried to such an imprudent man, and at last delightful and extensive profpe&. laid, he could not go that day to Mr. B Booth, but defired the serjeant to return to
A Description of ebe County of DURHAM, him at reven. The reason of this sudden
Wieb a new Map of ibe fame. change was, his having formed a scheme HIS county is commonly called the to keep Booth in prison cill he could get him a commission some where abroad, county palatine, subject still in great meaand then to employ the serjeant, as his fure, tho' much more anciently, to the pimp, for debauching Amelia. And pre- bishop, who has a temporal as well as ecfently after the serjeant was gone, he sent c clefiaftical jurisdiction. It had a parliahis own wife to see Amelia, and to invite ment of its own before the time of her, in the mort pressing manner, to come Hengy VII. who stripped the bishop of the with her children to live with her during effential parts of his palatine, or, indeed, her husband's confinement, which he had royal power, tho' he has ftill some sort of like to have consented to, but being puc çivil jur (d. Aion ; but the county was not upon her guard by Mrs. Ackinson, the af, allowed to send members to the parliament terwards peremptorily refused.
of England till 1675. The diocese includes (To be concluded in our APPENDIX.] the county of Northumberland and b tho.
prick of Durham, containing in all 185 On Account of tbe Verw of CLAREMONT,
parishes. This county or bithoprick is of wbicb we bave bere exbibited, we lball a triangular form, being from east to west give our Readers a brief Description of about 35 miles long, and about 30 where bat noble Sear,
broadest from north to South, and 107 in LAREMONT, or Clare-Mount, is circumference. It is bounded on the north
by the river Tine, which parts it from of the great road to Guilford in Surrey, Northumberland; on the eart by the Norik and about 4 miles weft of Epsom. It was E Sea, or German ocean ; on the south by originally a small house, built under a hill the river Tees, which separates it from covered with wood, by the late Sir John Yorkshire ; and on the west by part of Vanbrugh, whose peculiar taste in archi. Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westtecture is well known. His grace the moreland. It contains about 610, coo duke of Newcastle purchased it, and at a acres, is divided into 4 wakes, has 16 great expence beautify'd the gardens, &c. rivers, 20 bridges, 21 parks, and 4 castles ; and added to the house a large extent of and in it are one city, which gives naine buildings, in the same style with the ori. to the county, 8 market-towns, and 80 ginal Kructure ; among which is one very
parishes. It sends 4 members to parliaSpacious room, where his grace entertains ment, viz. two for the county and two for foreign ambassadors, and where all the the city : Those for the former, in the pesumpruous dinners, which the duke makes sent parliament, are George Bowes and the in the country, are served up. There are Hon. Henry Vane, Efqrs, and tor the latter, indeed some circumstances which much Henry Lambton and Johin Tempest, Eiqrs. abale che conveniences of this stately house : The air of this county is generally good, but It ftands fo near the bill, that the moisture tarp on the hills, and colder in the westera issuing from thence occasions it to be very than eastern parts. The west side has irca damp; and the winds being reverberared mines, the other parts are fruitful in corn back from the woods on the house, cause and pasturage, are weli inhabired, and most of the chimneys to smoke; all which about Sunderland produce excellent scals. makes it a bad habitation in winter : Buc Here are also some mince of lead, and as it is the place to which his grace usually quarries of marble ; but their main trade etires from publick bufiners, he has spared is in coals, The rivers and ca piintifully 4
fupply the inhabitants with salmon and 3. Bernard's, or Barnard's castle, 14 other oth. South Sheals, or Shields, is miles W. of Darlington, a small town, noted for a trade in coals and salt. In de with a market on Wednesdays. Its chief fcribing the places of note, we shall begin trade is in Atockings and bridles, and it with the city, viz.
gives title of lord to the family of Vane. Durham, in a peninsula formed by the 4. Aukland, or Bishop's-Aukland, 12 river Were, over which it has a large miles N, E. of Bernard's-castle, is wellstone bridges, 200 computed, and 266 A built, and pleasantly fituate on the side of measured miles N. by W. from London. a hill, between the rivers Were and It stands pleasantly and commcdiculy on Gaunless. It has a good market on Thursa gentle ascent, is of great antiquity, neatly day, and is principally noted for the and compadly built, surrounded with a bishop's fately palace, its curious chapel, wall, and defended by a large and strong and fine bridge. calle. It is much frequented by the neigh- 5. Hartlepoole, 22 miles E. of Bishop's. bouring gentry because of its pleasant fitua- Aukland, an ancient corporation, governed tion and plenty of necessaries. It is go. by a mayor, his brethren, and subordinate veroed by a mayor, aldermen, &c. li is B officers. It is encompassed by the sea on pretty large, and has 6 churches bebides
ali fides, except on the west, and is prina the carhedral, a stately Gothick fructure, cipally noted for its fare harbour, where not much unlike Westminster-Abbey, and the Newcastle coal fleets put in when the noted for its rich ornaments, plate, &c. weather is bad. Its market is on Mondays. The fee was first at Lindisfarn, or Holy 6. Sunderland, 12 miles N. E. of Dur. Iliand, in Northumberland, and the firit ham, another borough and sea-port town, A: Mops were Scots, who converted the
populous and well-built, has a good har: Northumbrians, or North Saxons, about C bour and coal trade, and a market on Fri. 634. It was removed to Durham about day. It has given title of earl to the family 995, and the cathedral soon became onruch of Spericer since the reign of K. Charles I. frequented, because of the reliques of St. and now to his grace the duke of MarlboCuthbert, one of the bishops of Lindisfarn, rough, son of the last earl by the second whom these people reckoned their tutelary daughter of that vi&orious hero John duke faint againnt ihe Scots. To him this ab. of Marlborough. bey or cathedral is dedicated, adorned with 7. Stanhope, 11 miles N, W. of Bihop's:
the and two at the wett end. In one of the chapeis is D Aukland, a small town, fituate among
parks, with a market on Tuesdays. It the tomb of venerable Bede. The pre- gives name and title of earl to a noble and bendaries have convenient houses in the ancient family ; and it is remarkable that adjoining college-yard, and the bishop has the Scots had well nigh furprized Ed. his palace in the castle. The city has a ward III, in one of the parks, lard Douglas very great market weekly on Saturday. having advanced so far into his camp, 48
The other market-towns are, 1. Stock- to cut the cords of his tent. * ton, 18 miles S. E. from Durham, which 8. Stainthorp, near the Tees, 6 miles from a poor town is of -late grown very E E, of Bernard's-castle, a small town, with confiderable, and a place of great business a market on Saturday. Besides there, and resort, full of well. built houses, go- Wolfingham, Marwood, and Sedgfield, verned by a mayor, &c. having a large are marked in the Maps for market - towns. market on Saturdays, and driving a great At Salt-water Haugh, about a mile and trade in lead and butter, of which great 'an half from Durham, in the middle of quantities are sent to London and foreign the Were, is a salt spring, which in sum. parts. The bishop of Durham is lord of
mer bubbles up 40 yards in length, and 10 the mancr, and it is famous for good ale.
in breadth ; but in winter is loft among 2. Darlington, 12 miles S. W. of Stock. the freshes. The faltest water iffues from ton, is a large poft town, consisting of a rock, upon the surface of which perfect several streets, having a fpacious market- falt is often found, when the weather is place, and a beautiful church with a high hot. The water that flows from it, is as Ipire. The market is very confiderable on salt as brine ; and tho' it bears no proporMondays, and it has a good manufacture tion to the fresh water, makes the stream in linen. At Oxenhall, near this place, brackish for 100 yards below, and dyes are three pics, called Hell-Kettles, full of the stones red. This brine, when boiled, water : The common people tell many fa. G yields a great quantity of bay-salt, not so bulous flories concerning them, and lay palatable, but as good for any uses as comthey are bottomless. The deepest of them mon falt. Near this place a medicinal is 15 fathom, and lying near the 'Tees, spring bas been discovered, which is pretty they are thought to have a communication much frequented, and reckoned good for with it: Some think they were occalioned Several difcalca. by an eaithquake,
537 JOURNAL of the PROCÉedings and Debates
in the POLITICAL CLUB, continued from p.499. }
jall now give you a Debate we have any part of their principal paid had in our Club upon the Reduction off, notwithstanding the low rate of of 2000 Men, made last Year in the interest they have now agreed to acNumber of Seamen employed in the
But this facred fund, Navy*; in wbich Debate the first meaning that we call the finking that spoke was Afranius Burrhus, : fund, we ought as seldom as possible the Purport of whose Speech was as A to divert from that use, for which it follows.
was originally intended ; and no Mr. President,
man, I lappose, will say, that in
time of peace we ought to load our SIR,
landed gentlemen with more than S the motion I am to make two or three shillings in the pound. is, I know, a little unpo- The produce of the land and malt
pular in this country, I В tax is now so well known, Sir, that, must beg leave to give you at fall believe, I need not inform gentlemen, length the reasons that have induced that the former at 35. in the pound me to think of making it. Economy never brings into the Exchequer, clear is at all times as beneficial to a society, of all deductions, full 1,500,000l. as it is to a private family, but at and the latter se!dom, if ever, above prefent, Sir, it will not only be be
700,000l. therefore we ought to reneficial, but it is absolutely necessary C duce our annual publickexpence withfor this nation. Under that heavy in 2,200,000l. or, if pollible, within load of debt, which the expensive 1,700,000l. In these circumstances, wars we have been engaged in have I do not doubt but that many genbrought upon us, it is absolutely neces- tlemen have been turning their sary to contract every article of pub- thoughts towards æconomy; and enlick expence, as far as is confitent, deavouring to fix upon those articles with our present security, and with D of publick expence upon which a the preservation of that tranquillity, saving may be made, without risking which we now so happily, and I that security we are now blessed with may fay, unexpectedly enjoy. In Some of these gentlemen I have contime of peace, I believe no man will versed with, and all I have talked think of adding to the number of to upon the subject, join with me in our taxes, or of increasing any one opinion, that 8000 leamen will be of those we are now loaded with ; E fufficient for the service of the enand every one knows, that all our suing year; so that we may reduce taxes, except the land and malt, are 2000 of those we had last year in now mortgaged for railing the civil the publick service, which will be a list revenue, or for paying the in- saving of 104,000l. terest and principal of debts already Latt year, Sir, it was necessary to contracted. That, indeed, which have 10,000 for several reasons that is allotted for paying off and sinking F do not now exist, some of which I the principal of our debt, we may, Thall beg leave to mention. In the now and then, in a case of necesity, first place, at the beginning of last year make free with, because fuch is the it was to be apprehended that pirates oublick credit of this kingdom, might appear in some of the distant that none of its creditors deire to parts of the ocean, as has generally December, 1751.
happened after a long war, when L-B
greas . Ses London Magazine for Sept, lajt, p. 410.