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and obliged them to abandon their con. ftates, wherein he acquainted themi, " That quests in the provinces of Utrecht, Guel. his zeal for the publick welfare, his love derland, and Overyffel : He also rent ad. for his country, the blood from whence miral Ruyter with a strong squadron, to he descended, and the name that he bore, drive the French out of the Caribbee islands; did not suffer him to reje& fo unanimous and tho it was an ineffectual attempt, yet a request t." The utility of this resolution the prince recovered the reputation and of ete Aates of Zealand was apparent to the territories of his country, procured A all the inhabitants of the United Proan honourable peace, and retained his vinces ; the city of Rotterdam followed dignity to his death ; after which the form the example, the whole province of Hol of government, that had sublisted before land concurred, and all the other provinces he was made Nadtholder, was resumed. were so defirous of purfuing the steps of William Ill. appointed John William the province of Zealand, that the prince Frizo, prince of Nafsau Diets, for his of Orange, on May 2, 1747, was apsuccessor to the hereditary poffefsions of the pointed, in the afsembly of the states ge. house of Orange ; who was elected here. neral, Nadtholder, captain general, and dirary ftadtholder of Frieseland, but was B admiral in chief of the United Provinces ; accidentally drowned in passing a river and, on the 4th, his serene highness was in Holland, on July 14, 1711, leaving his installed into the dignity of stadtholder, to late lerene highness William Charles Henry the universal joy of the republick: For Frizo, his only fon (by Maria Louisa, daugh- the administration of the government was ter of Charles, Landgrave of Heffe.Caffel,) then, in a great measure, invested in the who was born on the very day he was prince of Orange, partly as stadtholder, drowned, for his fucceffor.

and partly as captain general and admiral The authority of the princes of Orange, C in chef: The states alone had the power as it mutt be acknowledged to have had a of making war or concluding peace, of enmost effential part in the first frame of the tering into foreign alliances, railing of Durch government, and in all the fortunes taxes, and coining of money ; but the thereof, during the whole growth and pro. prince had the disposal of all military comgress of the state : So, has it ever preserved mands both by land and sea, in time of a very strong root, not only in fix of the war by his own commission, in time of provinces, but even in the general and po. peace by that of the states ; as fladtholder pular affe&tions of the province of Holland or governor, he represented the fupreme itself

, whose Nates have formerly endea. D civil magiftrate, in which capacity he parvoured to suppress, or exilude it.

doned offenders, and nominated magis. The successiul invation of Dutch Bra.

trates ; the towns presented him the names bant, in the late w r, by count Lowen. of three, out of which he chose one : dahl, the French general, and the clamours In him refided the dignity of the state ; he of the people againit the venality and cor- had a palace, a court, his guards and all ruption of their governors, obliged the re. other marks of external grandeur incident publick to have recourse to the same means to princes : To him foreign ministers paid as proved their preservation in 1672, by E their court, as did every one who was in. electing a ftadtholder. The late prince of clined to serve his country in the feet or Orange rent a letter to the fates of Zealand, army; in the council of state he had a offering to their noble mightinetles, to seat, and a decisive voice, but not in the whom he had the honour of being a vallal, assembly of the states general ; tho' nohis person and services for their defence ; thing could be transacted there without his being ready to risk with joy, and with the knowledge, or againt his con’ent. It is same zeal that his ancestors had thewn, very certain, from the exercise of this ofhis life and fortune for the publick good, ffice in the United Provinces, that the

i for that he would repair where they should power of the republick was never at a think fit, to contribute, at his own charges stand, till tlie office of Nadtholder was laid and expence, without any to the province, atide ; and, in the opinion of the judici. every thing in his power for their com. ous and impartial people, the common. mon defence. The states of Zealand, wealth has been declining ever Gince : Of upon receipt of this letter, unanimously this the republick was also thoroughly lenconcurred in a resolution, which was fible, and in such a manner that, on the palled on April 28, 1747, whereby their 21st of November following, the dignity of noble mightinesses nominated the prince G ftadtholder of the province of Holland, of Orange stadeholder, captain general, was made perpetual in the prince of Orange, and admiral of the province of Zealand : and his illue, whether male or female I ; Which refolurion was immediately notified which example was also'followed by the rest to the prince, who sent another letter to the of the provinces : But this dignity was never

to • See London Magazine for 1747, p. 217. + Ibid. p. 118. Ibid. p. 519.

1751.
VERSES on his DEATH.

505 to be poffeffed by any king or elector, nor midable, than when their forces were by any prince that did not prosess the entire, and the French at a distance from protestant religion, as by law established their frontiers : An example demonstrative in the republick ; and in case the stadthol.

of the necessity of the ancient sytem, dership should ever descend to a prince or which supposes a Itrict alliance, and an princess under age, they were to be educated inseparable union, between Great Britain within the province of Holland ; and this and the republick ; a maxim ro sacred, fettiement of the succession on the descen- A that on it are dependent the afety and dants of the female iffue was not to take

proiperity of two poient people, who have place, unless the female heirs married so olten defended, and with so much fucwith the especial consent and approbation cess, their own liberty, and that of the of the states. And it was likewise enaĉied rest of Europe : Therefore, that the illur by the states, that in care the faid digniry trious family of Naisau may be perpetuated should devolve on a princess, the should to latest poiterity, is, or ought to be, the enjoy it with the title of governante, and prayer of every one who wishes the con. have her seat in the flates, and in all the tinuance of peace, or is animated with the colleges, in the same manner as the stadthol. B love of liberty. ders : And as the was io be invested with But, alas ? all mankind have lost a all the authority annexed to the dignity of friend in this excellent prince ; commerce captain and admiral general, she was to seems expiring at his comb ; while poor appoint, in time of war, an able com. Batavia fioks beneath her cumberous load mander, of the protestant religion, but of atriation : Nor can Britain be infen. of no kingly or electoral dignity, to head sible of the blow ; it pierces home to her the troops in her fiead, who was to take heart ; and brings frein to her soul the an oath to follow and obey the instructions C memory of her royal Frederick, the bethat should be given him by the ftates. loved patron of arts, and encourager of And as the stadtholdership might devolve science. to a minor, then the princess his mother should, during his minority, act as a guar- On ibe DEATH of bis late Serene dian, with the title of governante, and Highness, tbe PRINCE of ORANGE. enjoy all the privileges annexed to it, till the minor was of age ; but if the should die, or marry again, then the states were Ot raging royalty, and tyrant pride : to supply that guardianthip, in the manner D To lure coy freedom to her lov'd recess ; they should think most advantageous. Be- And with tranquillity mankind to bless : fides there honours, the states general also To teach wide spreading commerce how presented his serene highness with a di.

to range,

[exchange : ploma, conftituting him hereditary Atadt- And make whole provinces one grand holder and captain general of Dutch Bra- To guard religion sacred in her fane ; bant, Flanders, and the upper quarter of To tame rash France, and scourge imperious Guelderland, a dignity never enjoyed by Spain : any of his predeceffors; and the Eaft. E To Melter merit ; industry to chear ; India company of the chambers of Am. And make the rose-wreath'd plenty crown sterdam and Delft, also appointed him director and governor general of their trade For these blest purposes, did heav'n design and settlements in the Indies.

Each hero of the great Nassovian line : This alteration in the government of Europe has often seen some brave Nassau the United Provinces was productive of Keep the base tyrants of the world in awe; the most beneficial consequences to the While bleeding from the heart, poor Belgia republick, its allies, and all Europe : For, ftood,

[blood ; by the vigilance of the Stadtholder in aug. F Her lands' defray'd, her cities bachid in menting the forces, the French were Chear'd by the eye of Orange, soon Me obliged to address themselves, at length, rore,

[foes. to the maritime powers for peace ; who And pour’d vindi&tive vengeance on her then answered these advices in the cnly Oh! may the nobleline ftill Aourith long ; proper manner, that is, in concert with Suil merit and obtain the muses long : themselves ; a method that had all ima- The mure on freedom ever did atiend, ginable success, fince it occafioned the And shed a tear when freedom lost a friend, procuration of peace, at the very time G The virtuous pearl now trembles in her eye, when the French were at the gates of the For, hark! her lov'd Van Haaren swells republick ; for as soon as England and the United Provinces kept the same language, Pays the latt gentle trilutary due, and combined in the same views, they Laments the prince, the fiicad, and patriot rendered themselves infinitely more for November, 1751,

The

To lahe heider brous hand ; to check

the year :

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The loving husband, and the tender fire ; is. Suppose a woman made pregnant in our
To all he sweetly tunes his mournful lyre ; present way of reckoning, and the doctors
Weeps o'er the great good man ;

tor and midwives are pofitive she must be de.
here he found,

(bound, livered on the 14th of September next, A miracle ! --a prince to honour must the not miscarry, if they tell truch A courtier, truth and honesty had and here is danger of murder ; or if her crown'd!

delivery was fixed for the 8th, she must not А

be delivered at all, or at least till the year Exlroat of a Letter from a Gentleman in tbe following; and here is more danger of mura Country to bis Friend in Town : Contain.

der. Or fuppofe by an old patent a fair is ing ibe Opinions of some WISEACRES up

to be held on the gth, and the patentee sets on tbe Alleration of obe STYLE.

his customs for so much yearly, must nob
the tenant lose a fair, and yet pay his rent?

very hard indeed, and mere murder ! But of the parliament to make us reckon after all, what end will this answer, canby the new liyle, various and strange have not matters remain as they were ? To been the cp nions of our country philofo- B which it was answered, that it would make phers, who are very numerous ; for every us agree with our neighbours in our recke man you meet has an opinion to maintain, oning, and reform our calendar and almaand something to say upon this subject. nacks. Ay, replied the other, if it would Wherefore, whenever I get into company, promote a general and lasting peace, I I throw the ball amongst them. Mention should like it very well ; but, instead of being made, that next year was to be il that, I fear it will promote an inteftino days (horier than the prelent, one of the war among ourselves. What will become company wisely observed, that he did not c of interest money for 11 days ? How mucha like the project, for by this means, laid he, must be lost there? But as to our calendar, we must pay our rent 11 days before it have you any thing to object to it? Was is due, servants must be paid for time they it not made at the reformation ? And did do not serve, bonds will become due belore you ever see a better almanack than Wata their time, with many other hardihips, too son's in all your life? Does he not foretel tedious to mention. But still I would be eclipses, Sundays, holidays, festivals, fairs, glad to know, what will become of these veftries, quarter-feflions, nay, the times 11 days, which you say are to be discard- people ought to go to church in Dublin, ed in September. Now if 11 days must be D len they should quite forget it, with the vea turned off, or dropt, I think it would be ry names of the churches ? which is more much better to take them from about mida than ever Whalley or his predecessors dido Summer, when there is scarce any night at Indeed he says nothing of the weather or all, and add them to the winter days, which the aflizes, which if he did, we could mawould shorten the nights, increase labour nage our farms the better, fix our races, without doors, and save candles. Nay, the mending our girths and faddles, buysaid another, that will never país, for, to ing new cloaths, and iron to Thoc our hor. be sure, the chandlers, the play. houses, the E ses, and not have too many things, with a taverns, and the masters and lovers of all process or (wo, come upon our backs at entertainments by candle-light, who are once, as it sometimes happens. One who three parts in four of the nation, would had been listening all this while, like a low petition against it. But I will tell you in the beans, said, none of you gentlemen what may be weil done with them, they have yet satisfied me, as to the manner of may be sent to the north, where they have dropping these u days. I can no more so much need of them in a night of fix believe that September the 4th shall be Sep. months long. And who knows but the tember the 15th, than I can believe transub.

F streamers or Aurora Boreales, observed of ftantiation. Can an act of parliament late years, are the ghosts of some days dil. cause an eclipse of the fun for 11 days ? carded in another country, and wandering Or is day-light to be an efted and confined about to look for a place of residence, in a dark dungeon lo long? Or are all his which ye: they have not found. I do not majesty's fubjceis to take such a dose of know, said another, how that may be, opium on the 2d at night as will set them but this I know, that many inconveniences to seep till the 14th in the morning. Or (as my neighbour said) muit arise from this is there another Jupiter to come and beget Icheme ; for example, suppose a man is G Hercules's for u days ? Satisfy me in these condemned on the 2d of September next, points, and then I shall fubmít. But I do and is to be hanged on the 34th, why, ty not think that an act of parliament can dethis scheme he is hanged next day; and if pri me of my senses and realon, any more harging a man ji days before his time, be than the council of Treat, Alt murder in a serist, I know not what

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1751. Of the NATURE of the SOUL.

507

with a quality or power of self or volun. To be AUTHOR of the LONDON tary motion. This, as to myself, I must MAGAZINE.

grant; but I can no more demonstrate to

another man, that I perceive in myself SIR,

such a power or quality, than I can de.. HE immortality of the soul having monstrate to him, that I feel pain when

my finger is in the fire, or that I see St. the negative, or rather the mortality or an- A Paul's church at noon-day, when my eyes nihilation of the soul attempted to be prov. are open, and the church full in my vicw. ed philosophically, tho' the author's argua For his knowledge or perception of this ments are very unphilosophical and absurd; power or quality, therefore, I must refer yet left they should impose upon weak him entirely to what he feels or perceives minds, I think, you mhould insert something within himself ; and if he thould take it by way of answer ; and if you have no- into his head to deny, that upon reflection thing better, I hope, you will give a place he feels or perceives such a quality or pow. to what follows,

er within himself, I Mould no more undera In order to judge whether the soul be B take to convince him of it, or rather to immortal or no, it is absolutely necessary make himn acknowledge it, than I would to form as adequate an idea of it as we undertake to convince him, or to make can during its union with the body ; and him acknowledge, that he feels pain when in order to this, we must examine how we his finger is in the fire, or that he sees Sc. first came to form or acquire the idea of Paul's church at noon-day, when his eyes what we call our soul. For this purpose I are open, and the church full in his view, cannot do better than to give some extracts The attempt would be ridiculous in the one from a little tract I met with about ten C case as well as the other. years ago, for proving the immateriality In the next chapter, the author goes on and free-agency of the soul ; because it is as follows : Thörter, and better adapted to the capaci- Sect. 1. After having, as mentioned in ties of the unlearned, than Mr. Baxter's the forcgoing chapter, convinced myself, enquiry into the nature of the human soul, that I am indued with a self-motive power

The author, after having mewn very na. or quality, I consider that every power or turally, and I believe truly, how we re. quality must exist in or belong to fume luo. ceive or form our ideas, particularly those D lance or being, therefore this quality must of space, matter, substance or being, qua- exist in my body, or proceed from the molity, divifibility, &c. comes next to examine dification of the parts of my body, or it our idea of motion, and how we come to must not ; which of course leads me to distinguish between what we call necessary confider, whether this quality can exist in motion, and what we call voluntary moti. matter, or proceed from any modification

Which chapter he concludes thus. of the parts of any material substance. Sect. 5. My idea of self or voluntary Sect. 2. That the quality which we call motion, being of great consequence in my a felf-motive power, does not, nor can Search after the true nature of things, there. E exist in any rude mass, or atom, (which is fore it is absolutely necessary to form a clear only a minute rude mals) of matter, I am and distinct idea of what we call volunta. upon the very first reflection convinced ; ry motion ; for which reason, and in order for from our idea of matter every man to determine, whether or no it be a motion must conclude, that no rude mass or atom that is originally produced in any part or

of matter can of itself begin to move, or parts of my body, without the affistance to move in any new direction. Therefore, of impulse from any part of matter, I if this felf-motive power he a quality that fay, for this end, I try to walk from one

F

exists in my body, it must be the relult of, end of the room to the other, or to move or proceed from a certain modification of my right or left hand, my thimb or little the parts of which my body is composed. finger ; whereupon I clearly perceive, by Seet. 3•

From anatomy I know, that my reflexion upon what I feel within myself, body is a machine, or a modified piece of that I have a power to move my body matter, consisting of several different and when and as often as I please from one end heterogeneous parts ; and that every new of the room to the other, or to move ei. motion of my foot, hand or finger, or any ther my right or left hand, my thumb, or other member of my body, is produced or liccle finger ; or finally to move neither of G impelled, and directed, by those parts of them, just as I please. This power, i fay, my corporeal machine, which we call I plainly perceive, I am as much convin- nerves, muscles, &c. But then I know ced that I feel or perceive it, as I can be that those nerves and muscles, before they convinced that I feel pain when I put my begin to move, or before they begin to finger into the fire ; thereíore with respect move in any direction different from to mysell, I must grant, that I am indued Sss 2

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the immediate preceding, which they must we call voluntary or sell motion, or of do, in order to produce this new mo. that quality or power which we call a felftion, or new direction, in my foot, hand, motive power, and which every man fo or finger, must be put in motion, or re. evidently feels or perceives himself to be ceive a new direction from something else; indued with. Therefore, I must at last and if it be from any material part within conclude, that the atom, or primary conme, such as the blood, or what we call the ftituent part of my body, which firit be. animal spirits, which, by beginning to A gins to move, or to move in any new di. move, puts my nerves and muscles in mo. rection, must be moved, or moved in that tion, or by beginning to move in a new new direction, by some substance or being direction, gives my nerves and muscles that is not material; and consequently, thac that new direction, by which the new di- the quality which we c ll the relf motive rection of my foot, hand, or finger, is power, is a quality which does not exist in produced, then that material put, be it my body, nor proceed from any modificawhat it will, must have been moved by, tion of the parts of which my body is or must have received that new direction composed ; but that it is a quality, which from, lime other material part beginning B exists in or belongs to some immaterial subto move, or beginning to move in a new di. Aance or being. reflion, within my body ; so that at last I Scat. 5. Being thas fully convinced, that must come to the fut atom, or primary the quality I find myself indued with, conftituent part of the matter, of which which we call the self motive power, or my body is composed, which began to the power of voluntary motion, is a quamave, or which began to move in that lity that cannot exist in my body, or proparticular direction, and by which my foot, ceed from any modificat.on of the parts of hand, or finver, was by the intermediate C which my body is composed ; and consematerial causes, impelled and directed to quently, that it is a quality which cannot move as it did.

exist or inhere in matter, however modiSect. 4. Oi this atom, or primary con. fied or organized ; but that it must exist or firvent part of my body, which first be- inhere in some substance or being that is gins to move, or which fist begins to not material; therefore I must from this move in a new direction, I must either say, quality perceive and be convinced, that that it moved ittelf, or that it was moved there is an immaterial being or subftance, by an imperceptible impulse from some D which is indued with a quality or power of part of matter without my body, or that moving some internal part, or some of the it was m ved by some substance or being internal parts of my body, perhaps what that is not material. That a rude mass or we call the animal spiries, and by their arom of matter should of itfell begin to

means, of moving my body, and several of move, or that it Mould of itself begin to the members thereof, when and which way move in any new direction, is what I

it pleases. Then by abstracting this immaknow I cannot suppore ; therefore I must terial being from the quality by which I either say, that it began to move, or to perceive it, I form that idea which I call move in that new direction, by an imper. E my soul ; and from thence I afterwards cep'ible impulse from some part of matter form that abstract general idea, which we without my body ; or I must say, that it call spirit. was moved, or began to he moved in that Sect. 6. Having (newn how we come at new direction, hy tone substance or being the knowledge of the existence of that be. that is nor material. III Mould say, that ing which we cail spirit, let us compare je bigan lo move, or to move in that new this knowledge with the knowledge we direction, hy an impercept ble impulse from have of that subftance which we call mat. fime part of merter without my body, f ter, and we shall find that we arrive at that part of matter must have begun to both in the same way, and that the knowmove, or to move in a new direction, ledge we have of spirit is as certain as the hy means of an impulse from some other knowledge we have of matter. We know part of matter, and in in infinitum ; conse. nothing of the substance called matter, no quently every" new motion or direction of more ihan we do of the substance called my tool, hand, or finger, muft depend Spirit ; we neither know, nor can know upon, and procced from an infinite chain any thing of either, hut by its qualities, of causes or moriens, every one of which, that is to say, by the ideas it communicates as it proceeds from a material impulfe, G to our minds ; and as to the method of muit be necessary; therefore every mocion acquiring or coming at the knowledge of of my free, hand, or finger must be ne. spirit, it is the very same with that hy o Tirvard not voluntary; and consequent. which we acquire or come at the know. ly no such motion could communicate to ledge of matter. By my sense of feeling, me the idea of that sort of motion, which I discover that quality of matier, which we

call

1

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