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1751. A Proposal for å most charitable Institution. 265 hecessary to hide that multitude of devil; if to such any admonitions fins we daily commit.--I shall not can be of use, if their consciences pretend to offer any method, or are not seared, and their hearts given rules, by which to begin or coh- up to reprobation, they have an occinue this moft humane establishment, casion of doing their utmost to releaving that to abler heads ; only pair the mischiefs they have caused : hoping that it will not be rendered A A poor satisfaction, indeed, to the inforbidding by any odious badges of jured sufferers ; yet, as it is all the distinction, or other feverities ; for, retribution they can now make, it surely, if vice and debauchery have may, with a fincere repentance and the advantage of allurements and contrition, be accepted by him, who temptations, thall not piety and vir- in this, as well as all other wicked tue have an agreeable and inviting nesses, is principally offended ; and aspect to recommend them ! And, B by these means they may flee from perhaps, those who are the properest the wrath of that God, who, we objects of this charity, as having are certain, will not suffer injustice most remains of that modesty and to go unpunished sooner or later. delicacy so amiable in the sex, will Sir, I am strongly inclined to bea be the laft to offer themselves, if lieve (as there are many offenders in they are not to be received and this point, who are men of liberal treated with a proper regard to that education and easy fortunes, and difpofition.

who surely feel at times some comOf all our modern charitable in- punction for their past misbehaviour) ftitutions (the Foundling only ex.

that if this inftitution were once fet cepted) this alone might boast, that on foot by proper persons, the suca its promoters have no views of their cess would be greater than has ever own to answer by its success, unless yet been in any of this sort of proit be the exalted pleasure of relieving D posals. the miseries of their fellow-crea- My motive for troubling you with tures, or that future reward, indeed this, is to keep awake the generous infinitely greater than any temporary disposition, which seems dawning one. This will afford to those of the forth, in the several essays I have sex, whose reputation is unimpeach- from time to time read in your Mas ed, a noble opportunity of thewing gazine * and elsewhere ; and if you their gratitude to the common Fa- E hould judge the whole, or any part ther of all, for having placed them

of this fit to answer that purpose, in such fituations, and so circum- you will please to give it a place in stanced, as to escape the calami:ous your next. ftate of their poor country women ;

I am, &c. and, I doubt not, huc that they are

T. Y. too modeft and chriftian-like to ascribe the difference between them, whol. F Toebe AUTHOR of ibe LONDON ly to their own wisdom and virtue.

MAGAZIN E. As to those who have seduced and tuined these objects of our charity,

S unknown cutrents in the sea who have destroyed the peace, and

are of the most dangerous conblasted the reputation of families, fequence in navigation, because they who have broken the hearts of those often produce fatal mistakes in a who were once happy fathers and G hip’s reckoning, when a ship is failmothers, who have contaminated ing in any part of the ocean unboth soul and body, and been in the known, it would contribute much to highest degree the instruments of the her safety, to have a certain method June, 1751.


for Ses our Magazine for October loff, po 436, and for March laj, p. 129.



for discovering where there is any necessary for determining the true current, and what is the direction proportion between the velocities and rapidity of that current. This and immersions ; which may be easubject has been, I find, proposed fily made. by the academy of sciences at Paris, But this, says he, being supposed, and likewise by that at Bourdeaux ; if you faften by two cords to the and to the latter, the following pro- A stern of a ship A, two balls, B and jea has been presented by father C, of which B shall be wholly, or Francis, a monk of the order of almost wholly, immersed under the Recolets. Whether it will be effec. furface of the water (Fig. 1.) and Ç tual, or not, I hall not answer, but but half immersed, B will be more as the publishing of it will make impelled by the current, and the some ingenious gentlemen turn their cords AC and AB, to which the thoughts the same way, I hope you B balls B and C are tied, will not rewill give it a place in your useful main parallel in any place where Magazine, as follows:

there is a current; but the two balls, " It is demonstrated by experi- ' B and C, will approach to or reence, says father Francis, that when move from each other, according to two bodies float upon any gliding li. their fituation with respect to that quid, that which is molt immerged part from whence the current comes ; will be carried with the greatest ve. C for if it comes from the side of B, locity, and if it floats fo as to be in- which is the most immersed, the tirely under the furface of the liquid, balls will approach together ; whereit will be carried along with a velo- as the contrary will happen, if it city equal to that of the liquid itself ; comes from the side of C, which is becaule the bulk of the body which the least immersed. floats juft under the surface of a li. This operation may be rendered quid, and the bulk of that body or D Atill more fimple, if, instead of em. quantity of the liquid whose place it ploying two cords, you put the balls occupies, being equal

, their velocity B and C upon one and the fame muft necessarily be the same. cord (Fig. 2.) for then the ship fail. 5. From hence the father concludes, ing in seas where there is no current, that a body which is but half im. che two balls will both follow her mersed, and consequently presents exactly in her line of direction ; but but half its circumference to the im. E if there is a current, the ball B, be. pulsion of the current, will receive ing more immersed and impelled by from it but a velocity proportionable the current, the cord (Fig 3.) on to its immersion, that is to say, a which the two balls are ftrung, will moiety; and consequently, these two make an angle A B D, greater or floating bodies (meaning one wholly, lefler, according to the force with and the other half immersed) being which the balls are impelled by the at the same instant exposed to the F current. This experiment therefore current, will separate, because they will infallibly discover the currents will be pushed with two momentums in the sea ; but as they have diof force, which will be to each o. rections different from the course of ther as one is to two, that is to say, the ship, this experiment alone will in proportion to their immersions in not be sufficient, because the currents every case.

do not always make an impulse upon The father says, that what he ad. G the balls in the ratio of their veloci. vances of the velocities and impul. ties, but in that of the fines of the tions being to one another as the im. angle of their direction and the merhons, has not as yet been des course of the thip ; for which reamonstrated; and that experiments are 1on their impulses may be often the


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7751. How to discover CORRENTS at SEA. : 267
fame, tho' their velocities and di.

Fig. 1.
rections be

-O'C very different. This

А experiment therefore can only shew,

B that there is a current, but it can

Fig. 2. neither measure the velocity, nor

с point out the direction. For this A

B purpose such a machine must be A made use of, as, father Francis has contrived, the construction of which A is as follows: Let the ball A be prepared of

D some sort of substance which imbibes no water ; for example, of any sort

B of hollow metal, the weight of B A. which to be increased so as that it Shall float just below the surface of An authentick Account of the Original the water, that is to say, so as thác of the Titles of Prince of Wales, it may be almost intirely immersed : Duke of Cornwall, and Earl of Let this ball be fixed at one end of Chester. a very flexible cord, ABC (Fig. 4.) CIS late royal highness being

с which for that purpose must be gracious sovereign George II. king pierced thro' the middle ; and to of Great Britain, &c. was not only prevent friction, you may make use prince of Wales and earl of Chester, of little wheels or pulleys. This but duke of Cornwall; (see p. 148 G, ball, B, must be made so as to be 150.) and had precedence, not only but half immersed.

by several charters, but by act of These things being prepared, ifD parliament, of all dukes, the king's you throw these two balls close to- sons, the king's brothers, the king's gether upon the cord or rope into a uncles, the king's nephews, or the current, the ball A will be drawn king's brothers or fikers sons, who along with more velocity than the have precedency before all other ball B; and if the immersion of B dukes, and are princes of the royal be fuch, that it makes but half of A, blood of England. it is evident that the balls will sepa. E The earldom of Chester, by king rate ; and that during the time that Henry III, was annexed to the B separates itself from A, if B be crown for ever, by letters patent, come to the distance of a yard from dated the 31st of his reign, 1247, A, the ball A will then have gone together with the castles of Cannock two yards, while B has gone but and Disfard ; and prince Edward, one. This will shew the' rapidity of his eldest son, was made earl thereof, the current; and the cord itself, on F whose successors have been the eldert which are the two balls, will show Sons of our kings; and the earldom the direction.

of Chester was united to the princiYou must proportion your cord, pality of Wales, by act of parliaas near as poslible, to what the sepa. ment, in 21 Richard II. ration of the balls and the course of The principality of Wales, being the ship may require."

brought under fubjection to king This is the fubitance of what father Edward I. that monirch, by a ftaFrancis says, and upon this I could G tute made at Ruthlan, in the izih make several remarks, but shall leave year of his reign, united it to Engthem to some other opportunity, or land'; in which statute there are to some of your more ingenious cor- maoy laws concerning the division of Felpondents. I am, &c.

LI 2


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268 Of the Titles Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, &c. June Wales, into counties, &c. yet he could ne. victorious prince Edward, before he was ver win the good will and esteem of the seven years of age, in the parliament held common people of the country, to accept at Westminster, ir Edward III. as also ' him for their prince, and be obedient to by charter, bearing date 17 March the such as he mould appoint, unless he would same year, being the firft precedent for the remain amongst them ; neither could he creation of the title of a duke in England; bring them to yield obedience to any other " to hold to himself, and his heirs, kings prince, except he were of their own na. A of England, and to their firit-born Tons." tion ; for the Welchmen having experi. But on the death of prince Henry, eldest ence of the English, and knowing that the son of king James 1. rome doubt arose king would rule by his deputies, would concerning this title ; but that king in pay no obedience to any Englithman, and council heard the master of the Rolls, I oftentimes answered, “That they were and the council of prince Charles, his fecontent to take for their prince, any man cond son, and other great men ; and after whom his majesty would name, so that he grave and serious deliberation, we find it were a Welchman;" and no other answer settled ; as may be seen in the Proceedings could the king get.? Whereupon the king B and precedents on baronies by writ, and etber fent for queen Eleanor, when great with bonours, where the case of the duchy of child, to the castle of Carnarvon, and be. Cornwall is mentioned at large : The chief ing near her lying in, he went to Ruth. doubt arose out of “ a literal conftruction Jan, and summoned all the barons, and of the words, filius primogenitus, contained men of note in Wales, to consult about in that singular form of limitation of the the publick good of their country. At said duchy made by patent, enacted by partheir meeting he deferred their consulta. liament 11 Edward III. whereby the king tion, until he was certified that the queen C did give the said duchy and large pofterwas delivered of a fon : Then he called fions, &c. to have and to hold, &c. to the Welchmen together, and told them, the said duke, and to the first begotton fon « That as they were oftentimes suitors to of him, and his heirs, kings of England him to appoint them a prince, he would and dukes of the said place, that hereditanow name one, if Ihey would obey whom rily succeed in the kingdom of England ; he Mould name ;" to which they an. so as they may in no wise be separated fwered, “ They would, if he would ap. from the said duchy, nor be given, or any point one of their own nation;" where

D way granted by us, or our heirs,

to any other upon the king replied, “ He would name or others, thap dukes of the said place ;" one born in Wales, who could speak never yet it appeareth' in the case of Richard, a word of English, whose life and conver- (after Richard II.) eldest son of the same fation no man was able to stain." And prince Edward, who died in the life.cime when they all had agreed, “ such a one of king Edward III. his father ; by means they all would obey ;" he named his own whereof, he became lineal heir male to the Yon Edward, born in Carnarvon castle, a king, that because he was not the eldest few days before, viz. April 25, 1284. son of a king, but of a king's son, he was Yer, notwithstanding this prince obtained E not duke of Cornwall by right of that this title of prince of Wales, as our lun. grant and limitation, but was made duke mons 'to parliament News ; Edward his by king Edward III. by letters patent, and fon, king of England (by the name of not by parliament. Henry VII. in the Edward III.) never had the title of prince joth of his reign, with the consent of the of Wales, otherwise than by courtesy, as prela:es, dukes, earls, and barons, in our two famous antiquaries, Camden and parliament, did make and create his son Selden, have observed.

Henry, prince of Wales and call or Chera Edward the Black Prince (ro surnamed


but did not create him duke of Corn. by the French, from his dreadful deeds in wall, which he would have done, if he war) the eldest son of Edward III. was had not been duke of Cornwall before by the first invested in the principality of birth, without creation : Yet the king Walts, 16 Edward Ill. with these enfigns Ruiled him his deareit second begotten ron, of honour, viz. a chaplet of gold, made Henry duke of Cornwall, &c. for his elder in the manner of a garland ; a gold ring, brother Arthur died without issue in his and a scepler of lllver; to hold to himself, father's life-time; and by statute made and his heirs, kings of England ; from 9 Henry V. it is expressed, that the eldest which time the heirs apparent of our G Sons of the kings of England, that thould kings, have borne the ville os prince of be next heirs to the crown of England, Wales, some having been created in like mould be dukes of Cornwall ; so that in form, or hers not.

James the Int's time, it was unanimously The title and dignity of duke of Corn. agreed and declared, that prince Charles, wall was, likewise conferred on the same being next heir to the realm of England,

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1751. Substance of the Spirituous Liquors Bill,

269 and the king's eldest son (after his bro. ble the value of the liquors sold. And ther's death) was in right, and by virtue if the person to whom the fame is sold, of the statute ni Edward III. duke of {hall prosecute such person for such offence, Cornwall.

he mall be entitled to a share of the peBy these acts, &c. the titles of prince of nalty, and be allo indemnified against all Wales, duke of Cornwall, and earl of penalties and forfeitures incurred by him, Chester, came to his late royal highness for selling spirituous liquors without a li. Frederick. Lewis, &c,

A cence, before the commencement of such

prosecution, The NEW BILL for preventing the No person Mall, after July 1, 1751, re.

exceffive Drinking of Spirituous Liquors, cover any debt contracted for spirituous licontains in Subfiance as follemus, viz. quors, unless contracted at one time to the EVERAL addicional duties are laid amount of 205. or upwards ; nor Thall

on spirituous liquors, to commence any item be allowed in any account for from July 1, 1751.

such liquors, where the liquors delivered The act of the 20th year of his majesty's at one time thall not amount to 208. 20 reign, for granting licences to distillers B the least. within the weekly bills of mortality, is re- If any retailers of spirituous liquors, pealed from Midsummer, 1751.

with or without a licence, shall, after July And, in lieu chereof, an additional duty 1, 1751, receive or take any pledge or of 208. per ann. is granted to his majesty, pawn by way of security for payment of to commence from Lady-Day, 1752, to any sum of money owing for such liquors, be paid by all persons taking out licences they mall forfeit 406. for such offence; to sell spirituous liquors by retail.

and the owners of such pledges or pawns Jn rices of the peace are empowered to c may recover the same, or the value thereof. convict persons selling spiricuous liquors No licence is to be granted after July 1, without a licence, and recover penalties 1751, for selling spirituous liquors in any within the limits of the head office of goal, prison, houle of correction, work Excise in London, as well as the commil- house, or house of entertainment for parish soners of Excse, who are not to mitigate poor : Nor Thall any goaler, keeper, or any penalty to a less sum than gl.

officer of any of the said places, sell, or No person, after July 1, 1751, is to permit any spirituous liquors to be sold sell any spirituous liquors within the limits therein, on pain of forfeiting, for the firtt aforesaid, unless he renis a house of 10l. a D offence, the sum of 100l. and for the leo year, nor in any other part of the king- cond offence his office or place. dom, unless such person pays to the races Justices of the peace are empowered, to the church and poor in the parish where upon information upon oath, to enter and he lives.

search, or to authorize any peace officer All persons felling Spirituous liquors after to search any of the said goals, or other July 1, 1751, without a licence, are for places, and, if any spirituous liquors are the first offence to be subject to all the pe- found therein, to seize and dettroy the naljes now imposed by law, and all the same, spiricuous liquors found in their custody


If any person thall bring any spirituous within these 3 kalendar months after, may liquors into any of the places aforesaid, be seized and destroyed ; and for the se- the officers thereof, or their servants, may cond offence such persons are to be com- apprehend such person, and carry him bemitted to the house of correction, and fore a justice of the peace ; and if such kept to hard labour for any time not cx- . person is convicted of such offence, he is ceeding 3 months, and be whipt if the to be committed to prison, or the house of justices think fit ; and for the third offence correction, for 3 months, unless he pays they are to be transported for seven years. F.down 20l. and not less than sol, for such

The commissioners of Excise, and justices offence. of the peace, within their respective jurif- Goalers and other officers are to caule dictions, may, upon cath made before printed or written copies of the three prethem, grant warrants to any peace or pa. cecing clauses, to be hung up in the most rith officer to search any house or place, publičk places in the goals and other places where any offences are sworn to be com- aforesaid, on pain of forfeiting 4os. mitted, and, if need be, to break open All persons who now are, or fall, from doors, and seize all lpiriruous liquors there


and after July 1, :751, become distillers, found, and stave ard defiroy the same. Tall enter with the officers of Excise, all

Diftillers, or other persons selling spiritų. Atills, tuns, casks, and ether Otentils used pus liquors, after July 1, 1751, to any person, .by them, on pain of forfeiting sol. to be unlawfully sold, or to any unlicensed And Thall new tbe fame lo che laid offi. çetailer thereof, are to forfeic 10d, and tre- cers to be marked, on pain of forfeiting



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