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of the matter, and my known zeal to serve Gentlemen,

you, however ineffe&tual my attempts I

might prove, were always sufficient to le. cere thanks, for the very high honour cure me the honour of a kind reception and you have done me, in electing me cham- unmerited regard. berlain of this great and opulent city.

Your countenance, gentlemen, first drew So honourable a preference speaks tho me from the retirement of a studious life ; very favourable opinion you are pleased to A your repeated marks of distinction first entertain both of my integrity and abilities : pointed me out to chat great body, the The former of these my heart tells me you merchants of London, who, pursuing your cannot be mistaken in, how partially ro- example, condescended to entrust me, un. ever you may have judged of the latter. I equal and unworthy as I was, with the fatter myself therefore, that by a due ex. most important cause, a cause, where your ertion of these abilities (such as they are) interest was as nearly concerned as theirs. in a diligent and conscientious discharge of In consequence of that deference, which the important trust reposed in me, I Mall has ever been paid to the sentiments and be honoured with the continuance of your B choice of the citizens and traders of Lon. favour and protection.

don, it was impotlible, but some faint lul. Give me leave, gentlemen, once more tre must have glanced on one, whom, weak to thank you, and with a heart overflowing as he was, they were pleased to appoint with gratitude to assure you, that I shall the instrument on their behalf ; and if from endeavonr to act, both in my publick and these transa&tions I accidentally acquired the private capacity, as becomes a faithful fer. smallest share of reputation, it was to you, vant of ihe corporation, and a fincere gentlemen of the livery, that my gratitude friend to every individual member thereof. C ascribes it ; and I joyfully embrace this

publick opportunity of declaring, that what. Mr. Glover then addressed the livery in

ever part of a publick character I may prethe following elegant and pathetick (peech.

sume to claim, I owe primarily to you. Gentlimen,

To this I might add the favour, the twenFTER the trouble, which I have had ty years countenance and patronage of one,

whom a supreme degree of refpect shall application for your favour to succeed Sir prevent me from naming ; and tho' under John Bosworth in the office of chamber- The temptation of using that name, as a lain, this day fo worthily supplied; I should D

certain means of obviating some miscondeem myself inexcusable in quitting this ftructions, I fall however avoid to dwell place, before I rendered my thanks to those on the memory of a lols so recent, so jutt. in particular, who lo generously have e- ly, and so universally lamented. Permic Spoused my interest ; to your new elected me now to remind you, that when placed chamberlain himself, and numbers of his by these means in a light not altogether un. friends, whose expressions and actions have favourable, no lucrative reward was then done me particular honour, amid the the object of my pursuit, nor ever did the warmth of their attachment to him ; to E promises or offers of private emolument inthe two deserving magiftrates, who have duce me to quit my independance, or vary presided among us with impartiality, hu. the least of my former professions, which manity, and justice ; and lastly, to all in always were, and remain fill founded on general for their candour, decency, and in. the principles of universal liberty ; princi. dulgence.

ples, which I assume the glory to have eftaGextlemen,

blished on your records ; your sense, liveHeretofore I have frequently had occasi. rymen of London, the sense of your great on of addressing the livery of London in


corporation so repeatedly recommended to publick ; but at this time I find myself at an your represetatives in parliament, were my unusual loss, being under all the difficul. renre, and the principal boast of all my ties, which a want ot matter, deserving compofitions, containing matter imbibed your notice, can create : Had I now your in my earlient education ; to which I have rights and privileges to vindicate, had I always adhered, by which I fill abide, and she cause of your suffering trade to defend, which I will endeavour to bear down with or were I now called forth to recommend me to my grave. And even at that gloomy and enforce the parliamentary service of period, when deserted by my good fortune, the most virtuous and illustrious citizen, G and under the levereit trials ; even then, my tongue would be free from constraint, by the same confiftency of opinions and and expatiating at large, would endeavour to uniformity of conduct, I fill preserved that merit your attention ; which now must be part of reputation, which I originally de. solely confined to ro narrow a ruhjeet, as rived from your favour, whatever I might myself. On those occasions the importance pretend to call a publick character, unfhaken


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1758. Account of Dr. Mend's Physical Admonitions. 223 and unblemished ; nor once in the hour of proper vehicles. Therefore the divine Au. aftliation did I banish from my choughts thor of nature formed fibres of a twofold the most fincere and conscientious intenti. kind, some carneous and some nervous, as on of acquitting every private obligation, the receptacles of this active principle ; as foon as my good fortune should please both of which are partly interwoven in the to return ; a diftant appearance of which membranes of the body, and partly col. seemed to invite me, and awakened rome leated together into tendons adhering to Aattering expectations on the rumoured va. A the members, for performing, by the help cancy of the chamberlain's office ; but ale

of bones, their motions. ways apprehending the imputation of pre- But this admirable engine ftill wants a fumption, and that an higher degree of de. first-mover, as it cannot move itself. Jicacy and caution would be requisite in me

Therefore the soul is appointed as its go. than in any other candidate, I forbore, till vernor and director, and is the first cause Jate, to present myself once more to your of all our motions and sensations ; for notice, and then for the first time, abftra&t

whether it exists in the head, as in its pa. ed from a publick consideration, folicited lace, or whether it exists in no particular, your favour for my own private advantage. B but in every part of the body, as was My want of success Thall not prevent my maintained by Xenocrates, the disciple of chearfully congratulating this gentleman on Plato, it rules and governs us in every his election, and you on your choice of lo thing. Our motions, however, as well as worthy a magistrate ; and if I may indulge our sensations, are both internal and exa hope of departing this place with a share

ternal : To the former are subjected not of your approbation and esteem, I folemn.

only our vital parts, such as the heart, the ly from my heart declare, that I shall not lungs, the stomach and inteftines, but bear away with me the least trace of disap. C likewise all our nervous membranes. pointment.

Moreover, the physical authors uhually N. B. The number of liverymen who put a very notable difference between the polled at the former election of chamber.

motions of our vital parts, and those of the lain was 6646, and at this last election

other parts of the body : The former, af. 4312.

ter they have in our earliest infancy begun,

they suppose do persist, and necessarily conTbe learned Dr. Mead boving lately published inue, whether we will or no ; but that a Book in Latin, called Phyfical Admoni.

the latter are directed by the judgment of tions and Precepts, we shall give cur Dthe mind, according as things happen. Readers ibe Subflance of ide Introduction

But in this they judge amiss, being deceived und Conclufion, because ebey are of a neral by this, that the former, without our beConcern; and indeed obe Wtole deserves a

ing conscious of it, are observed to con. Place in tbe Study of cvery one ibat can pur. tinue thro' the whole course of life, with. cbafe is, because ibe Doctor expriho bim

out any sensible interruption ; yet neverself so clearly, and bis Precepes are plain,

theless, if this affair be Arialy examined, ibaribey may be underfood even by i boje wba

it will very clearly appear, that these vital underfland sorbing of Pbyfick. His Incro

E motions do not seem to be free from the duetion is in Subparce as follows, viz.

government of the mind, for any other

reason, but because by immemorial custom diseases to which our body is liable, we perform them so readily and with ro it will be worth while briefly to premise little attention, that even tho' we would something of what it is when in full health

we cannot easily stop or restrain them from and vigour.

executing their leveral functions. Some If one would therefore form to himself

thing of this kind we experience, as often a true idea of the human body, he ought as we shut our eyes, whether we will or to conceive in his mind a certain fort of F no, upon turning them towards the rays hydraulick machine constructed with the

of the sun, or any thing else that hurts nicest art, in which there are innumerable them; and yet no one doubts of this mo. canals fitted and accommodated for carry- tion's being made at the command of the ing Auids of divers kinds. Of these the mind. This I could prove and, illuftrate chief is the blood, from whence are de.

by many other examples ; but it would be rived Auids which serve for the different too tedious, and therefore I chuse rather to offices and purposes of life ; particularly, recommend to the reader a Creatise pub-' that called ibe animal Spirits, which being G lished by that learned physician Porterfield, generated in the brain, and indued with a who has so clearly elucidated this matter as moft extraordinary elastick force, are the

to put it out of all doubt. efficient cause of all our motions and len

But this power of the mind appears in Cations; neither of which offices they could

no case more manifestly than in fevers, feiform, if they were not contained in especially those that are called pefilential ;


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for in these we may observe, that the mind Geometricians have long endeavoured to haltens to affiit the suffering fabrick, to contrivé a machine, that should always of wrestle with the enemy, and by the help itseif continue in motion, which they call of the animal spirits, without our being a perpetuum mobile; but having never fucfenfible of it, to excite new motions, in the ceeded to their wish, they have hitherto body, whereby the poison, which oppreffes laboured in vain. For in such machines the Auids, may thro' all the paliages be something of the momentum of motion driven out of the body ; from whence the A mult every instant be loft, as it necessarily more accurate sort of phyficians have de. yields to, and is gradually diminished by fined disease to be, a conflict of nature the friction of the parts themselves; there. contending for its own preservation.

fore it is necessary, that it should be perIn this manner care is taken, when the petually restored. For this reason it is whole machine is in danger ; but it fome- alone the omnipotent Author of all things, times happens to be neceffary to take care that can bring such a machine to perfection : of a particular part, and even then the He resolved that our bodies should be such mind is never wanting in its duty ; for if a machine, and he disposed its several any particular part be by chance viliated,


powers in such a manner, that there should left it should be opprefsed, and sink under be a sort of circulation among them, by too great a weight, nature has to provided, which at the same time that they perform that the blood and other fluids may find a their respective functions, they always mu. passage thro' the neighbouring canals. tually restore each other. This is brought about by that wonderful : From hence it is manifest, that the ani. formation of the body, by which the little mal machine is not formed by piece-meal, tubes for the passage of the Auids are so but all at once ; for it is impossible, that intricately interwoven among themselves, C this circle of motions which depend upon and every where so spread, that the blood each other, should be performed, if any of may pass not only from vein to vein, but

their utenfils were wanting. For examfrom the smallest arteries into others ; ple ; let me ask, how the heart could con. therefore this artificial disposition is chiefly tract itself, in order to expel the blood, apparent where obftru&tions are moft to be without the help of the animal spirits ; feared, such as the head, the lower part of and they again could not be produced withthe belly, and those long windings of the out the brain. The same question may be ducts which are adjoining to the genitais. asked with respect to every other principal And such a construction of our fabrick D

part. Those animalcules therefore, that is the more necessary, because, even tho' hy the help of microscopes, are found to no discale thould happen, yet the cufto. be swimming in femine masculing, are really mary motions of the body lometimes re- little children, which being received into quire, that the fluids Mould be carried the female womb, are there cherished, as thro' some of the duas more freely than if it were in their neft, where they inthro' others ; from whence it happens, crease, and are brought forth in due cime. that in different forts of men, by reason of Therefore Hippocrates of old juftly said, their different employments, the same & That in a body ibere is no forf part, but every blood vessels are wider or narrower, ac- part is borb first and laff. cording as they are more or less dilated by To what I have already said, I Mall the perpetual motions of the Auids : So

only add, that every animal machine is of the wine. bibbers have the arteries of the

such a nature, that there is a sort of infibead, and the luftful those of the genitals, nity in its conftituent parts ; so that as far larger, than fober persons, or persons less as we can observe, we find the parts progiven to venery.

ceeding in fibres ro infinitely small, that To these I may add, that it can hardly they escape the observation of our senses, otherwise be, but that the texture of the F cho affifted by the best microscopes; and animal parts, tho' most convenient for if it were otherwise, the nourishment could life, should now and then meet with some not be distributed thro' the whole body, shocks ; much in the same manner as in nor could the functions of life be performed. the frame of the world it sometimes ne. Upon the whole therefore, a regular ceffarily happens, that in some places there motion of the fluids, and a proper state of should be storms of thunder and lightning, the solids, is what constitutes health ; and hurricanes, inundations, pestilences, and the deviations of these are diseases, which such like calamities. But as the supreme G being almost innumerable, and one often Governor of the world restrains and cir- begetting another, it may seem to be alcumscribes these last evils, according as the molt a miracle, should any animal body nature of things requires, lo for those to reach to extreme old age. And from which our little world is subject he has hence, surely, we may clearly see, how provided proper remedies,

extensive the use of physick is, and how far it excels all other sciences, But

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1751. Rules for the Preservation of HEALTH.

225 But the Almighty and Divine geometri. al koff cartilaginous ; the semilunar valves, cian has formed this machine, the only one especially of ibe arteria aorta, were perfectly that has perpetual motion, so as to last for carti aginons; and ibal membrane of ibe brain a longer or shorter time, according to the called be dura mater was obrice as tbick as different circumstances of the animals; usual, and was found to be of a fubfiance like for that this body of ours Mould for ever

learter, , semain alive, is impossible ; because the After this the doctor proceeds to explain, membrancus fibres of the canals, by which A and to prescribe for, the several diseases in. the blood is conveyed, and which we have cident to the human body; and concludes said to be indued with an elast:ck force, with some rules for the preservation of for pushing forward the liquor inclosed, healeh ; in which he observes, that those grow harder and more fuff ; from whence diseases which proceed from too much ab. they become unfit for their proper uses, finence are more dangerous than those and the secretions of the fluids in the seve- which proceed from repletion ; becaule ic ral parts are by little and little diminished. is eafier to empty than to add. For this Besides, the emitting of the useless fluids realon he advises, that to preserve health by perspiration through the small pores of B add vigour, we should now and then inthe skin, which is absolutely necessary for dulge a little more than usual both in eatlife, grows in old age insufficient ; as has ‘ing and drinking ; but excess in drinking been demonstrated by diffecting the bodies is laser than excess in eating ; and if at of aged persons ; which diffcctions have any time we exceed in the latter, he advises sometimes Mewo, that the interior parts of us to conclude with a draught or cold wathe arteries were here and there covered ter, and even sometimes to add a little lemon with an cffified substance, so that they had juice. After eating, he says, we ought to almoft quite lost the r elasticity: And far. C keep awake for some time, and then to take

ther, the orifices of the natural ducts have a nap ; and if upon any account we are to often, in such cases, been found to be fait for a long time, we ought to avoid any grown as hard as a cartilage.

sort of hard labour ; nor ought we ever to Two notable examples of this sort I shall fast long after a full meal, nor to cat a full give an account of, one of which our own meal after long fafting ; neither ought we annals have furnished. A poor countryman,

to go to immediate rest after very hard lanamed Thomas Parr, born in the health. bour, nor run into violent exercise after ful county of Salop, where to the age of long rest ; therefore all changes ought to 130 he had employed himself in the hard D be made by little and little. Jabour of country-work, had then become Our kind of life ought likewise, he says, blind, and was at last brought to London, to be variegated ; Sometimes in thecountry, where he remained for some time, and die sometimes in town, sometimes navigating, ,ed in 1635, after arriving at the age of 152 sometimes hunting, and sometimes refling,

years and nine months. This man's body but more frequently exercifing ; because had the honour to be diffected by that im. Nuggishness weakens, but exercise strength. mortal discoverer of the circulation of the ens the body. But in all these things a me. blood, William Harvey, who found all the e dium is to be observed, for we ought not to

parts in good condition, except the brain, fatigue too much, or exercise too frequentwhich he found to be grown solid and hard ly or too violently, iho' before eating we to the touch ; so much had length of days ought always to take a little exercise. Of hardened the vessels which contained the all kinds of exercise riding, he lays, is the quids in that part of the body.

best, or if too weak for that, to be carried The other example is recorded in our in a coach, or at least in a liter or chair. Philfophical Transactions. The story is of Then he recommends military exercises, a decrepid old Swiss, a miner, who died in tennis, or cricket, and running, or walking; 1723, at the age of 109 years and three F but old age, he says, has often this disada months ; and it was transmitted to us by vantage, that tho' exercise be necessary for that learned physician John Jacob Sceuchzer the body, it has not strength to bear it. In of Zurich. In diffecting his body tbe ex.

this case he recommends frequent rubbing terior coal of ibe spleen was found to be full with a felh brush, either by one's self, or of wbire spors, wbich at forli view resembled by the help of a servant. ibe puftules of ibe small.pox, and wbich were Then he confiders Need, which he calls alogerber as bard as a cartilage, and rifing a sweet relief from our cares, and a reflorer e little above ibe fuperficies of be rest of ibe G of our strength ; but cautions us against coat ; tbe prominences of the breaft, wbere ir indulging it 100 much, because it then ftujoins wiib ibe ribs, were become quite offified ; pifies our senses, and renders them untic bat lendon by wbicb tbe arteries are inserted for the common offices of life. Night he in the beari, was eisber entirely offified, or recommends as the fitiert sime for sleeping, May, 1755,




because of it& da kness and filence ; espe- Atanding. He had not any power in him. cially for the studious, whose minds and bo. self of pleasing or amusing, but supplied dies are more liable to injuries.

his want of conversation by treats and diAs to food, he recommends the tender versions ; and his chief act of courtship and lighter fort for children, and the strong- was to fill the mind of his mistress with er for those of riper years; but old people, parties, rambles, mufick, and shows. We he says, ought to diminish their quantity of were often engaged in fhort excursions to food, and increase that of their drink. A gardens and seats, and I was for a while Something, however, is to be allowed for pleased with the care which Venuftulus dil custom, especially in cold climates, such as covered, in securing me from any appearthis, whe e the appetite is keener, and the ance of danger, or possibility of mischance. digestion easier.

He never failed to recommend caution to Lally, he considers copulation, as to

his coachman, or to promise the waterman which, he says, nature may be indulged by a reward if he landed us fafe, and his great the youthful and vigorous, but ought never care was always to return by daylight for even by them to be provoked ; and old peo

fear of' robbers. This extraordinary folici. ple ought to be particularly careful not to B rude was represented for a time as the efo cut th rt their thread of life, by making a feet of his tenderness for me ; but fear is pain of a pleasure.

too strong for continued hypocrisy. I loon And for the comfort of the poor, he con. discovered that Venuftulus bad the cowar. cludes with comparing their condition with dise as well as the elegance of a female. His that of the rich ; upon which he gives the imagination was perpetually clouded with preference to the former, unless the latter terrors, and he could scarcely refrain from be accompanied with, and governed by screams and outcries at any accidental sur'. great prudence.

C prize. He durft not enter a room where a

rat was heard behind the wainscoat, nor From the Rambler, May 7. cross a field where the cattle were frisking

in the sunshine ; the Ica A breeze that waved Story of TrANQUILLA; or, an old Maid's

upon the river was a storm, and every claApolozy.

mour in the street was a cry of fire. I have T is not very difficult to bear that con- seen him lofe bis colour when my squirrel

dition to which we are not condemned had broke his chain, and was forced to by necessity, but induced by observation and

D choice; and therefore I, perhaps, have ne

throw water in his face on the sudden en

trance of a black cat. I was once obliged ver yet felt all the malignity, with which a to drive away with my fan a beetle that reproach edged with the appellation of old kept him in distress, and chide off a dog maid (wells in some of those hearts, in which that yelped at his heels, to whom he would it is infixed. I was not condemned in my gladly have given up me to facilitate his own youth to solitude, either by neceffity or escape. Women naturally expect defence want, nor poffed the earlier part of life and protection from a lover or a husband, without the fattery of courtship, and the and therefore you will not think me culpa. joys of triumph. I have danced the round E ble in refusing a wretch, who would have of gaje'y am dit the murmurs of envy and burthened life with unnecessary fears, and gratulations of applause, been attended flown to me for that succour, which it was from pleasure to pleasure by the great, the his duty to have given. fprightly, and the vain, and seen my re. My next lover was Fungoso, the son of gard solicited by the obsequiousness of gala a Nockjobber, whole vifits my friends, by Jantry, the gaiety of wil, and the timidity the importunity of persuasion, prevailed of love. If, therefore, I am yet a stranger upon me to allow. Fungoro was indeed no to nuptial happiness, I suffer only the consequences of my own resolves, and can look

very suitable companion, for having been F

bred in a counting-house, he spoke a lana bick upon the succession of lovers, whose guage unintelligible in any other place. addresses I have rejected, without grief, and He had no defire of any reputation but that without malice.

of an acute prognosticator of the changes When my name first began to be inscrib- in the funds ; nor had any means of raising ed upon glasses, I was henoured with the merriment, but by telling how somebody amorous profesfions of the gay Venustulu, was over-reached in a hargain by his father. a gentleman, who, being the only son of a He was, however, a youth of great fobriewealthy family, had been educated in all G ty and prudence, and frequently informed the wantonners of expence, and softness of us how carefully he would improve my for. effeminacy. He was beautiful in his per. tune. I was not in hafte to conclude the fon, and easy in his address, and, there. match, but was so much awed by my pafore, foon gained upon my eye at an age rents, that I durft not dismiss him, and when it is very little overuled by the under. might, perhaps, liave been doomed for ever


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