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159 a trade with any success, unless it trade, or lay it open to our own was to a place where none could people, and this put an end to the trade but themselves? Do not we trade of the company ; for their know, that in order to enable a present circumstances shew, that they company with a joint stock to carry have never since carried on the trade on any trade, they must not only with any advantage. have an exclusive privilege with re- A Our East-India company owed its gard to their own countrymen, but establishment to the same causes, it must be to fuch a place, or a trade and will, at last, I fear, Sir, have of such a nature, that they cannot the same fate with our African compoffibly be rivalled by any foreigners? pany; for its trade will be at an end Is not the bill we but the other day as foon as it begins to be rivalled by agreed to, for extending and im- the private traders of other nations ; proving the trade to Africa, a me. B but thank God! our neighbours have lancholy proof of this truth? No all hitherto carried on that trade by trade had ever stronger arguments companies as we do. And as to the in favour of a company with a joint South-Sea company, they have neftock, than that trade had at the be- ver so much as once endeavoured to ginning : It was to be carried on

establish a trade in that which is proupon a savage coast, where it was perly called the South-Sea ; and impollible to trade with any security C now, I believe, will never more for your merchants and factors, with- have any trade in any sea whatever. out having forts for their protection But left it should be objected, that against the natives. The friendhip these were all exclufive companies, of the natives was to be purchased I shall make some observations upon by prefents to their little princes, our Turkey company. This comand yet that friendship, after you had pany was from the beginning depurchased it, could not for a day be D signed to be a free and open comdepended on, unless you had a fort pany : That is to say, every man for a security against their perfidy. was to have leave to trade to Turkey, Such a trade, therefore, could not who could make himself free of the be opened without a much greater company by the payment of a small expence than the profits of the trade fum, I think 5l. But the company could answer in a great number of were enabled to make by.laws, and years ; consequently, this expence E

every man free of the company was must be defrayed by the publick, or to be subject to these by-laws. What a company with a joint stock and was the consequence? Some cunning exclusive privilege must be erected. fellows among the directors conAs the government had not at that trived a by-law, by which they extime millions yearly at its disposal, cluded every man from the Turkey as it has had since, it could not spare trade but themselves and their the expence, and therefore it was F friends * By this means they in. absolutely neceffary, for the opening grossed the trade to themselves, and of that trade, to erect a company fold all English goods in Turkey at with a joint stock and exclusive pri- such a high price, that the French vilege. Whilst that company was were enabled to rival us, and at last unrivalled, or but very little ri- run away with the greatest part of valled by foreigners, they carried on the trade. the trade with advantage ; but as


In this country, Sir, we should soon as they came to be rivalled by be more cautious of erecting trading the private traders of other nations, companies, than in countries where we saw that we must either lose the

their government is arbitrary. Mer.

chants, * See a debate on ebe Turkey trade, London Magazine for 1745, P. 521, 530.


chants, in all countries, are but too panies. In the infancy of both these generally selfish and cunning : They trades, the undertakers made vast will endeavour to inrich themselves profits in both countries ; but the often by such methods as tend to the application of those profits was very ruin of their country ; and by erect- different: The directors of the Dutch ing them into companies you furnish East-India company applied a great them with the means of exercising A share of those profits in planting cotheir talents in this way. When lonies and ingrossing the spice islands; such attempts are made in arbitrary by which they have secured a lasting countries, the ministers may easily revenue to their successors, and exand speedily put a stop to it, and tensive dominions to their country : punish severely the authors, in an Whereas the directors of our Ealtarbitrary, short, and summary way ; India and African companies applied but here you must proceed according B their whole profits yearly towards into the forms of law; and it is so creasing their dividends, in order to easy to evade any law that can be raise the price of their stock, by made for preventing such practices, which indeed they inriched them that it is impossible to convict them, felves and the then proprietors, but especially as they are to be tried by they procured no solid lasting adlawyers, who seldom, I believe, in- vantage to their successors, nor any derstand any thing of trade. We useful dominion to their country ; had a strong instance of this in the and the late fate of Madrass is a Turkey company I have mentioned;

melancholy proof, how precarious for tho' the affair was about four or their little poffeffions are in that part five years ago brought before parlia of the world.


. ment, and tho' the pernicious con- These things I thought necessary sequences of the by-law they had to premise, Sir, concerning the conmade, were set in the clearest light, D duct and fate of trading companies yet not only the authors of it escaped in this country, in order to thew, without punishment, but the by- that we should never erect


such law itself was left in its full force ; without an absolute neceflity ; but whereas had our government been what is the necessity of erecting the arbitrary, and our ministers careful company now under considerati. of their duty, the by-law would on? For carrying on the fishery we have been by the supreme authority & have no occasion for erecting any abolished as soon as made, and the forts, or for purchasing the friendchief promoter of it hanged, for at- ship of any foreign princes : We tempting such an injury to the trade have no occasion for being at any of his country

expence, but what with frugal maWe may from hence see the rea

nagement may be reimbursed by two fon, Sir, why trading companies or three successful voyages; and the prosper much better, and are of F fitting out a herring buls is so small more advantage to their country, in an expence, that any common merFrance than in England. Even in chant may by himself alone underHolland they have generally been take it. When I talk of frugal maconducted with much more publick nagement, I must observe, that it is spirit, and a greater regard to the by this alone, and by selling at a good of the commonwealth in gene- small profit, that the Dutch have ral, than ever they were in England. G hitherto prevented our interfering We may be convinced of this, by with them in the trade, and now we comparing the conduct of the East

are going to grasp at a share of the India company in Holland, with that

trade, by carrying it on in the most of our East India and African com- expensive way that can be thought 1751 PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. 161 of. This really, Sir, appears so ri- do; but 10,000l. is too large a sum diculoas, that I am ashamed of it, for molt men to invest in such a new and yet it is certainly the case ; for and precarious trade, and most men à company can never carry on any like to have the whole management trade at ro cheap a rate as private of what money they employ in trade, men may do, and London is the most nor will any man living in the north inconvenient port in the kingdom, A of Scotland chuse to have the acthac herring buffes can be sent from, counts of his outset under the inspecor fitted out at ; because it is more tion of the society of London. distant from the proper places for Therefore I am much afraid, that filhing than any port in Holland, this London company will be like and the voyage more tedious and more the dog in the manger : They can dangerous ; and the building and fit- neither carry on the trade themselves, ting up of busses at London will be B nor will they allow others to carry more expensive than at any other it on; and I am sure, the company port in the kingdom, because the can be of no service to the governwages of workmen are much higher ment, with respect to the discovery than any where else. For these rea. or prevention of frauds. fons, Sir, I think it is almost a de- I cannot therefore see, Sir, what monftration, that whatever may be occafion we had for a company : I expected from the chambers at the C am sure, it will be a cramp upon the other ports of the kingdom, the trade, rather than of any advantage company at London can never carry to it; and it is so evident, that the on the trade with success, because they company muf lofe by their trade, if will always be undersold by the Dutch, they carry on any, that few men if not by the chambers at other ports. will engage in it with that view. 1

Then, Sir, as to the chambers, I am therefore afraid, that there is if any such be set up in the north of D some ftockjobbing scheme, or some Scotland, they may, by means of the such fraudulent scheme in view premiums allowed them, come in for of some of those concerned ; and à share of the trade with the Dutch ; if chis should at last appear to be but why should you put those pre. the case, or if the company should miums, or at lealt, the 31. per cent. honestly and fairly engage in the under the management of a company trade, and in a few years exhaust at London? Or why should you con- E their capital, as they will probably fine the 31. per cent. to che company

do, it will be such a discourage and the chambers ? Why should not ment as will, for many years, preevery private man, that will risk 500 vent others from engaging in it. or icool. in this trade, have the For this reason, Sir, I think we fame encouragement, so as the whole should reject the bill now before us, does not exceed 500,oool, that the fince it is such a one as cannot be publick may be certain what sum F amended ; and because we cannot it has to pay yearly upon this ac- propose to have another bill brougho count : If this had been done, I am in and passed this session, we should persuaded, that many private men address his majesty to order the board would have engaged in the trade, of trade to prepare such a scheme a. and would have gone to settle gainst next session, as they may think at, and fit out buffes from, the will be effectual for promoting the northern ports of Scotland ; where, G white herring fishery, and other fihby being near the proper places eries, upon the coasts of Britain and for fishing, they might have carried Ireland. it on at a much less expence than (7 bis JOURNAL to be continued in it is polible for the Dutch to our nexe) April, 1751.






The London correspondent read 68393903908 over and over the odd article, which

put the future spouse on the same The follorving humourous Adventure of a

foot with the bales of goods he was Marriage negotiated by Bill of Ex,

to send to his friend ; and after adchange, in one of the English lands miring the prudent exactness of the in America, was received by a Vil

: A American, and his laconick Itile, in filately arried from Jamaica. Dated, Kingiton, Jan. 20, 1750-1.

enumerating the qualifications which

he insisted on, he endeavoured 10 Merchant originally come from serve him to his mind; and after ma

London, having acquired a ny inquiries, he judged he had found great fortune in that illand, conclud- a lady fit for his purpose, in a young ed with himself he could not be hap- person of a reputable family, but no py in the enjoyment of it, unless he B fortune ; of good humour, and of a shared it with a woman of merit; polite education; well shaped, and and knowing none to his fancy, he more than tolerably handsome. He resolved to write to a worthy corre- made the proposal to her as his friend spondent of his at Londors. He had directed, and the young gentleknew no other stile than that he used woman, who had no fubsistence but in his trade ; therefore, treating af from a cross old aunt, who gave her fairs of love as he did his business, C a great deal of uneasiness, accepted after giving his friend in a letter se. it. A ship bound for that island was veral commifions, and reserving this then fitting out at Bristol ; the genfor the last, he went on thus: “Item, tlewoman went on board the same, seeing that I have taken a resolution together with the bales of goods, beto marry, and that I do not find a ing well provided with all necessaries, suitable match for me here, do not and particularly with a certificate in fail to send by next ship bound hither, D due form, and indorsed by the cor. a young woman of the qualification respondent. She was also included and form following: As for a por. in the invoice, the last article of tion, I demand none ; let her be of which ran thus : “ Item, a maid of 21 an honell family ; between 20 and years of age, of the quality, shape, 25 years of age ; of a middle ita.

and conditioned as per order ; as apture, and well proportioned ; her pears by the afidavits and certificates 1:ce agreeable, her temper mild, her E the has to produce.” Writings, which character blameless, her health good, were thought necessary, to lo exact and her constitution strong enough to a man as the future husband, were, bear the change of the climate, that an extract of the parish register ; a there may be 110 occasion to look out certificate of her character signed by for a second thro' lack of the first, the curare ; an attestation of her foon after she comes to hand ; which neighbours, setting forth that she had · must be provided against as much as F for the space of three years lived with poffible, considering the great dir- an old aunt who was intolerably peetance, and the dangers of the sea. vilh, and that he had not, during all If the arrives, and conditioned as that time, given her said aunt the least abovefaid, with the present letter in- occasion of complaint. And lastly, dorsed by you, or, at least, an at- the goodness of her confitution was tested copy thereof, that there may certified, after consultation, by four be no mistake or impofition; I here-G noted phyticians. Before the gentleby oblige and engage myself to sa- woman's departure, the London cortisfy the laid letter, by marrying the relpondent fent several letters of adbearer at 15 days fight. In witncis vice by other ships to his friend, whereof I subscribe this, &c." whercby he informed him, that per


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1751. Second Letter on Pope CLÉMENT's Buil. 163
such a ship he sent him a young wo- Recapitulation of what was said
man of such an age, character, and in the former. (See p. 67-74.)
condicion, &c. in a word, such as he The Defign of this second Letter is.
defired to marry. The letters of ad- to consider some other Excuses that
vice, the bales, and the gentlewo- were fuggested, or Evasions that
man, came safe to the port; and our mighe' be invented, in favour of
American, who happened to be one A this Bull; in which the Writer!
of the foremost on the pier at the la- proceeds thus.
dy's landing, was charmed to see a EFORE I enter upon the sub-
handsome person, who having heard
him called by his name, told him, liitle analysis of this bull. It has a
“ Sir, I have a bill of exchange up. two parts; the first concerns the

know that it is not vows that the king and queen of ulual for people to carry a great deal B France may have made, and may of money about them in such a long make for the future. The other re. voyage as I have now made ; I beg lates to the oaths, by which they the favour you will be pleased to pay might have engaged themselves to ici.” At the same time the

any thing his correspondent's letter, on the " We readily acquiesce to your back of which was writ, “ The bear. desires, says the pope. Wherefore, er of this is the spouse you ordered C inclined to favour your requests, we me to send you." “ Ha, Madam! grant an indulgence, by thcle presents, faid the American, I never yet suf- as weil to you as to your successors, fered my bills to be protested, and I kings and queens of France, thac. swear chis Thall not be the firft : I the confeífor that each of you Mall shall reckon myself the most fortů. chule, may commute into other works nate of all men, if you allow me to of piety, the vows which you may discharge it." “ Yes, Sir, replied D have already made, or may make she, and the more willingly, since I hereafter, (except only the vows of am apprized of your character. We

beyond fea, of visiting the churches had several persons of honour on of the blefied Peter and Paul, of board, who knew you very well, chastity and continence,) as also and who, during my paffige, have poiver to commute the oaths by you answered all the querions I asked taken, or to be taken for the future them concerning you, in fo advan. E by you and them, which you cannor tageous a manner, that it has raised

conveniently keep." in me a perfect esteem for you.' I kept to this last article in my This first interview was in a few foregoing letter, as being what is days after foilowed by the nuptials, most Alriking in the bull. However, which were very magnificent. The if you think proper, we will fay new married couple are satisfied with something also of the vows, were id their hapry anion made by a bill of F only out of mere curiosity. Cpen exchange, which was the most fortu- this head we cannot complain of nate that had happened in that island the too great indulgence of the pope. for many years.

On the contrarv, ne ieems too rigid

'in che cales excepted from the dif. We shall here give our Riadis the penzion.

Substance of the fecord Lutter, from I own to you, Sir, I could noo a Librarian of Geneva, ujon an G have guefied the realon of thee exa extruordinary Bull of Pope Cie. ceptions, sor conceived any thing MENT VI. emitting, fx Brevity's of it, had I not an oportunity of Suki, ibe Introduction, wbich is a converting with a learned ecclefi



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