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86. View from Sholes's Landing................... Page 149

87. Initial Letter ..................................... 70

88. Plan of the Fort ....... 151

89. Crown Point .... 152

90. Inscribed Stone.. 152

91. Well at Crown Po 153

92. 158

93. - 159

94. Burgoyne addressing the Indians............... ... 160

95. Tomb of Ethan Allen ......................... ... 161

96. Scene of Arnold's Naval Battle................. . 162

97. Plan of Arnold's first Engagement ............. ... 163

98. Plan of Arnold's second Engagement........... ... 164

99. Washington's Hair-powder Pouch.............. ... 166

100. Isle Aux Noix, in the Sored.................... ... 167

101. Military Establishment at St. John's............ ... 169

102. Fort at Chambly.............................. ... 171

103. St. John's, on the Richelieu River......... --------. 173

104. Portrait of Lord George Germain.............. ... 17.3

105. French Canadian House ...................... - 173

106. Canadian Peasant Girl......................... . 174

107. Beloeil Mountain ............................. ... 174

108. Portrait of Francois Yest. 175

109. A Thunderstruck Rock .... 175

110, 111. A Caleche—Aurora Bo 176

liz. Initial Letter ----............ - - - 177

113. Grey Nun Praying. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 378

114. View of Montreal and its Walls in 1760......... ... 179

115. Signature of Ethan Allen ...................... ... 180

116. Portrait of Sir Guy Carleton.. ... 1st

117. Walls of Quebec......... *------------------- ... is a

118. View of Point Levi from Durhaun Terrace.. 185

119. Wolfe's Ravine........................... - 187

120. Portrait of General Wolfe - 188

121. Wolfe's Monument ...... - 180

122. Norridgewock Falls, 1775. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 191

123. Arnold's Route through the Wilderness, 1775. 193

124. Initial Letter............................... . 195

125. St. John's Gate . 198

126. Cape Diamond........................... - 198

127. Place where Arnold was wounded......... . 199

128. Palace Gate, outside................ ...... - 190

129. Portrait of General Montgomery. . .200

130. Montgomery's Monument . 201

131. Palace Gate, inside... - §§

132. Temperance Cross...................... -

133. Montmorenci Falls ... oug

134. Wolfe and Montcalm's Monument........ ... 205

135. The Cascades, or St. Ann's Rapids......... ... :06

136. Cedar's Rapids, at St. Timothy......... . 207

137. Lumber Raft on the St. Lawrence...... . 209

138. Cairn.------------................... . 209

139. Sheldon House .. 210

140. Wind-mill Point 211

141. Portrait and Signature of Lord Amherst.. 213

142. Initial Letter........................... - 214

143. Bomb-proof Tower.. 214

144. Oswego in 1755...... . 217

145. Forts at Oswego. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

146. Remains of “New Fort," Oswego ...... 218

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. 286

. 288

... 292

197. Portrait, House, and Signature of J. Dievendorf..... 293

198. Mansion of Judge Campbell.------...-------- ... 296

199. Distant View of Cherry Valley ......... . 297

200. Brant's Rock.......................... ... 297

201. Portrait of Hendrick Hudson......... ... 301

202. Schuyler's Mansion at Albany..... ... 304

203. Initial Letter................-----------. ... 305

204. Washington's Head-quarters at Morristown. . .309

205. Schuyler's Headquarters at Morristown... ... 315

206. Fa ile of the Continental Paper Money.......... 317

207. Fac-simile of the first Money coined in the United

States.----------------------------------------- 3.18

208. Cipher Alphabet.................. 320

209. Fac-simile of Cipher Y.; - - - - - -- 3:20

210. Old Apple-tree at Springfield...... 32.2

211. Plan of the Battle at Springfield. 322

212. Mrs. Mathews's House. 323

213. Caldwell's Monument.. ... 326

214. Boudinot's Vault................. . 326

215. Old Tavern at Elizabethport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

216. Franklin's Stove.------------------------------... 328

217. “Liberty Hall" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

218. Portrait of Governor Livingston. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

219. Steuben's Head-quarters at Middlebrook............ 333

220. Washington's Rock...... ------------------------- 334

ol. Initial Letter ------------------------------------. 337

222. Scene in the Wyoming . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 341

223. Portrait of Count Zinzendorf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

224. View near Toby's Eddy........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

; Site of Wintermoot's Fort......................... 351

. Position of the Wyoming Forts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

227. Signature of Colonel Z. Butler..................... 355

228. The Susquehanna at Monocasy Island.............. 356

229. Queen Esther's Rock -------...------------...---- 357

230. The Treaty Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

231. Initial Letter...... - 364

232. Wyoming Monument........ 365

233. Frances Slocum—Ma-con-a-qua. . 369

234. Timoth Pickering -------------------------------- 374

235. The “ House"-------------------------------- 375

236. Cars ente the Mines at Carbondale............. 378

237. Lamp of a Miner.................................. 378

338. Appearance of the Chambers in the Mines.......... 379

239. View from the Shawangunk Mountains ............ 381

240. Initial Letter ... ------------------................ 382

241. The Van Kleek House, Poughkeepsie.............. 383

242. The Livingston Mansion........................... 385

243. The Constitution House, Kingston ................. 387

244. The Yeoman House. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :888

245. Monument in Church-yard, Kingston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

246. View at the Mouth of the Rondout................. 390

247. Van Schaick's Mill.--------------.... . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

248. Portrait of General Stark........................... 394

249. Plan of the Battle of Bennington ............... - 395

250. The Bennington Battle-ground................. . 396

251. Initial Letter.............. 401

252. Distant View of Compo ....

. Head quarters of Agnew and

Dibble's Barn............

. Portrait of Joseph Dibble...

. Portrait of General Wooster..

. Place of the Barricades, Ridgefi

Place where Wooster Fell....

. Arnold's Residence, New Haven.

. Savin Rock

... West Bridge

. Campbell's Monument

. Landing-place of General Tryon.

. Humphreys's Monument...

. Portrait of Colonel Humphreys.

ilford hill.

The buc ey House. . . . . . . . . .

275. Portait of Dr. Eneas Munson.

376. Signature of Nathan Beers.

277. Initial Letter

278. First Meeting house in Connecticut

279. The Charter Oak............................. --

280. The Webb House........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 43r;

281. Elder Brewster's Chest, brought in the May Flower. 437

282. Key of the Chest.................................. 4

283. Fac-simile of the Signatures of the Pilgrims -

284. Ancient Chair..............................

285. Chopping-knife........

286. Putnam's Tavern Sigm..

287. The old Colony Seal......

288. Ancient Map of Massachuse

289. The “Pine tree Shilling”......................

290. The Beacon in Boston.........................

291. Facsimile of the first American Paper Money

292. Seal of George III., the Purse, and Chancellor's Mace. 456

293. Initial Letter..................................... 457

2.94. Portrait of George III. at the Time of his Accession... 457

295. Usual Appearance of King George III., 1776 ... 458

296. Portrait of Queen Charlotte.................. 458

297. Portrait of George Grenville................. 460

298. Portrait of Colonel Barré.................... 4to

* Liberty Tree....... ... ::::... 46t;

300. Portrait of Governor Hutchinson............. - 46-

301. Portrait of Charles, Marquis of Rockingh . 470

302. Portrait of William Pitt..................... - 472

303. The Province House...................... . 474

304. Portrait of John Dickinson................. - 47t;

305. Faneuil Hall................................ 479

306, Portrait of Augustus Henry . 48-2

307. Portrait of Lord North.. . 483

308. Initial Letter.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485

309. Title- of the Boston Almanac, 1770....... 48ts

3.10. Music of the “Massachusetts Son . 487

3.11. The “Old South" Meeting-house............. 490

312. Signature of James Otis................. 49:

313. Portrait of Lord Dartmouth.............. . 495

314. Portrait of David Kinnison............... - 499

315, Portrait of G. R. T. Hewes............ - 501

316. Portrait of Edmund Burke............. . 503

317. Hancock's House, Boston............. - 507

318. Skull and “Cross-bones”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507

319. Disjointed Snake-device at the head of Newspapers 508

320. Initial Letter..................................... 50.9

321. Portrait of Samuel Adams............. . 510

322. View of Boston from Dorchester, 1774. ... 512

View of the Lines on Boston Neck..... . 513

Portrait of John Hancock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 515

Medallion. Likeness of Adam Smith..... ... 517

Portrait of Edward Gibbon ........ . 519

Medallion Likeness of John Wilk 520

. Colonel Barret's House..............

. Initial Letter

. Charlestown and adjacent Hills in 1775.....
. Plan of the Redoubt on Breed's Hill....

. Monument at Lexington.......
. Near View of the Monument.....
. Portrait of Jonathan Harrington .
. Washington's Head-quarters at Cambrid
. The Riedesel House, Cambridge
. Bunkor Hill Monument............

350. Signature of the Baroness Riedesel

Clarke's House, Lexington.

Skirmish at Lexin

Signature of Colonel James Barret...

Battle-ground at Concord.............. -

Plan of the Monument at Concord...... - - -

Reverse of a Massachusetts Treasury Note, 1775

The New England Flag

Action on Breed's Hill

Portrait of Joseph Warren . 548

Warren's Monument - 549

Initial Letter........... . 551

Monument at Concord .............. - 552

351. Chantrey's Statue of Washington.... -

352. Mather's Vault.................. . . 561

353. Cotton Mather's Writing .............. . 562

3.34. Speaker's Desk and Winthrop's Chair.. . 562

355. King Philip's ogo. --------------------------- 562

. Captain Church's Sword .......................... 562

. The Washington Elm, Cambridge.................. 564

. Boston with its Environs, 1776..................... 566

. The Pine-tree Flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570

. Signature of Governor Gage....................... 573

. British Fort on Bunker Hill........................ 574

American Floating Battery......................... 575

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INTRODUCTION,

Far o'er yon azure main thy view extend,
Where seas and skies in blue confusion blend:
Lo, there a mighty realm, by Heaven design'd,
The last retreat for poor, oppress'd mankind;
Form'd with that pomp which marks the hand divine,
And clothes yon vault, where worlds unnumber'd shine.
Here spacious plains in solemn grandeur spread;
Here cloudy forests cast eternal shade;
Rich valleys wind, the sky-tall mountains brave,
And inland seas for commerce spread the wave.
With nobler floods the sea-like rivers roll,
And fairer luster purples round the pole.
TIMothy Dwight.

VERY nation eminent for its refinement, displayed in the cultivation of the arts, had its heroic age; a period when its first physical and moral conquests were achieved, and when rude society, with all its impurities, was fused and refined in the crucible of progress. When civilization first set up its standard as a permanent ensign in the Western hemisphere, northward of the Bahamas and the great Gulf, and the contests for possession began between the wild Aborigines, who thrust no spade into the soil, no sickle into ripe harvests, and those earnest delvers from the Old World, who came with the light of Christianity to plant a new empire and redeem the wilderness by cultivation, then commenced the heroic age of America. It ended when the work of the Revolution, in the eighteenth century, was accomplished; when the bond of vassalage to Great Britain was severed by her colonies, and when the thirteen confederated States ratified a federal Constitution, and upon it laid the broad found. ation of our Republic. Those ancient civilizations, registered by the stylus of history, were mere gleamings of morning compared with the noontide radiance which now lights up the Western World; and even the more modern nations of Europe, brilliant as they appear, have so many dark spots upon the disk of their enlightenment, that their true glory is really less than that of the waxing Star in the West. These ancient and modern civilizations, now past or at their culminating points, were the results of the slow progress of centuries; the heroic age of America, meteor-like, was brilliant and rapid in its course, occupying the space of only a century and a half of time from the permanent implanting of a British colony, weak and dependent, to the founding of our government, which, like Pallas Athena, was, at its birth, full panoplied, strong, eminently individual in its character, and full of recuperative energies. The head of Britannia was cleft by the Vulcan of the Revolution, and from its teeming brain leaped the full-grown daughter, sturdy and defiant. Long anterior to the advent of Europeans in America, a native empire, but little inferior to Old Rome in civilization, flourished in that region of our continent which now forms the southwestern portion of the Republic. The Aztec empire, which reached the acme of its refinement during the reign of Montezuma, and crumbled into fragments when Cortez dethroned 1521. and murdered that monarch, extended over the whole of Central America; and when the Spaniards came it was gradually pushing its conquests northward, where all was yet darkness and gloom. To human apprehension, this people, apparently allied by various ties to the wild nations of North America, appeared to be the most efficient instruments in spreading the light of civilization over the whole continent; yet they were not only denied this glorious privilege, but, by the very race which first attempted to plant the seeds of European refinement in Florida and among the Mobilian tribes, and to shed the illumination of their dim Christianity over the dreary regions of the North, was their own bright light extinguished. The Aztecs and their neighbors were beaten into the dust of debasement by the falchion blows of avarice and bigotry, and they form, apparently, not the most insignificant atom of the chain of events which connects the history of the empires of the Old World with that of our Republic. It is believed that, two hundred years before the Aztecs subdued the more ancient people of the Mexican valley and founded Tenochtitlan,' a handful of rough, half-civilized adventurers from the wintery shores of Iceland and the neighboring main, driven by adverse winds they knew not whither, touched upon the bleak shores of Labrador, and traversed the American continent southward as far as Rhode Island, and, it may be, the capes of Virginia." These supposed first modern discoverers of America were the children of the “mighty sea kings” of the Teutonic romances—the Scandinavian reguli, who, scorning to own Gorm the Old of Norway, and Harold Fairhair of Denmark, their conquerors, as masters, forsook their country and colonized Iceland, Greenland, Shetland, and the Orkney Islands, whence they sent forth piratical expeditions, which became a terror to Western Europe. They traded as well as plundered, and by commerce and conquest became potential. Every coast was visited by their squadrons, either for war or traffic. They swept over Denmark and Germany, and by conquest obtained possession of the best portions of Gaul.” They invaded the British Islands, and placed the renowned Canute upon the throne of Alfred. Long before Christianity had shed its genial rays over their frozen territory of the North, and banished the barbarous rites of Pagan worship, the lamp of learning had been taken from the cloisters of the South and placed within their temples, and upon dreary and desolate Iceland and Norway civilization erected its humanizing altars. Ardent, imaginative, and devotional, they eagerly accepted Christianity, and it became to them really a “Star in the East,” leading to where “the infant Jesus laid.” It was not to them so much a personal treasure to be valued for its immortal blessings, as a glorious idea full of temporal advantage. It became an intense passion, not a sober belief, and its warmth generated mighty events. Among them the spirit of chivalry had its birth and early nurture; and in those unholy wars against the possessors of the land of Palestine and of the sepulcher of Christ, called the Crusades, which shook the nations during three consecutive centuries, these Northmen furnished the bravest leaders. From such a people, possessed of every attribute necessary to the successful founding of new empires, having the ocean pathway to a broad and fertile continent made clear before them, what great results might not be expected ? But, with the prize just within their grasp, they, too, were denied the honor of first peopling our land; yet their mixed descendants, the Anglo-Saxons, now possess it. It is supposed that they attempted settlements, but sailed, and in the lapse of centuries their voyages were forgotten, or only remembered in the songs of their bards or the sagas of their romancers. For more than five hundred years after the voyages of those navigators, America was an unknown region; it had no place upon maps, unless as an imaginary island without a name, nor in the most acute geographical theories of the learned." It was reserved for the son of an humble wool-carder of Genoa to make it known to the world. During the first half of the fifteenth century, maritime discoveries were prosecuted with untiring zeal by the people inhabiting the great peninsula of Southwestern Europe. The incentives to make these discoveries grew out of the political condition of Europe and the promises of great commercial advantages. The rich commerce of the East centered in Rome, when that empire overshadowed the known world; when it fell into fragments, the Italian cities continued their monopoly of the trade of the Indies. Provinces which had become independent kingdoms became jealous of these cities, so rapidly outstripping them in power and opulence; and Castile and Portugal, in particular, engaged in efforts to open a direct trade with the East. The ocean was the only highway for such commerce toward which they could look with a hope of success. The errors of geographical science interposed their obstacles; the belief that a belt of impassable heat girdled the earth at the equator intimidated mariners, and none were willing to double Cape Bojador, beyond which was the fancied region of fire. Prince Henry of Portugal, son of John the First and Philippa of Lancaster (sister of Henry the Fourth of England), having accompanied his father into Africa, in an expedition against the Moors, received much information concerning the mineral riches and fertility of Guinea and other portions of the coast. The idea of making discoveries along the African shores filled his mind, and on his return to Portugal he abandoned the court, retired to a secluded spot near Cape St. Vincent, in full view of the ocean, and drawing around him the most eminent scientific men in the kingdom, pursued geographical and nautical inquiries with untiring zeal. He became convinced that Africa was circumnavigable, and that the

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1014.

* This city was founded about the year 1210, and was afterward called Mexico, which signifies the place of Meritli, the Aztec god of war. The present capital of Mexico is upon the site of that ancient city. The Aztecs, at that time, were settled in Lower California. They were divided into six tribes. The Mexican tribe wandered off southward, subdued the Toltecs, and founded the city around which the whole Aztec nation subsequently gathered. The Toltecs were far more refined than their conquerors, and from members of that dispersed nation the Aztecs were first made acquainted with painting, sculpture, astronomy, and many of the useful arts, such as working in metals, building bridges and aqueducts, agriculture, &c.

* See note on page 65, vol. ii.

* Charles III., called the Simple, the eighth of the Carlovingian kings of France, ceded to Rolf or Rollo, one of the Northmen chiefs, the large province called by them Normandy. This event occurred in the year 918. Rollo and his subjects embraced Christianity, and became the guardians of France against further invasion from the Northmen.

* “The [Atlantic] Ocean,” observes Xerif al Edrisi, an eminent Arabian writer, quoted by Irving, “encircles the ultimate bounds of the inhabited earth, and all beyond is unknown. No one has been able to verify anything concerning it, on account of its difficult and perilous navigation, its great obscurity, its profound depth, and frequent tempests; through fear of its mighty fishes and its haughty winds; yet there are many islands in it, some of which are peopled and others uninhabited. There is no mariner who dares to enter into its deep waters; or, if any have done so, they have merely kept along its coasts, fearful of departing from them. The waves of this ocean, although they roll as high as mountains, yet maintain themselves without breaking, for if they broke, it would be impossible for a ship to plow through them.”

*

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