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A Series of Discourses upon Architecture in England, from the Norman AEra to the Reign of Queen Elizabeth; with an Appendix of Notes and Illustrations, and an Historical Account of Master and Free Masons. By the Rev. JAMEs DALLAWAY. 8vo. pp. 447. AFTER all that has been said and written upon the origin of Pointed Architecture, the subject remains involved in mist and obscurity. The discovery of this beautiful style, introducing a novel form and principles into the detail of architecture, will ever be viewed as a striking effort of genius; but to whom, in particular, we are to assign the merit of the first application, or what nation is entitled to claim the earliest specimen—whether the forests of Germany, the classical land of Italy, or the eastern climes of Asia, witnessed the earliest developement of the germs of this transcendantlybeautiful invention—will remain, perhaps for ever, as much a matter of doubt and conjecture as at present. Our own country possesses a strong claim to be called the father-land of the Pointed style; or, at least, if the claim of parentage is not admitted, is entitled to all the credit which is due to a faithful foster parent. The ancient architecture of England may be divided into two classes; one, the Pointed style in all its brilliancy, and the other an imitation of the architecture of ancient Rome, but which had so far departed from the original standard, as almost to form a style in itself. To assist the student in acquiring historically a knowledge of the ancient structures of the kingdom, has been the object with which this volume is written. The author divides his work into six discourses, comprising sketches of English architecture, from its first introduction until the close of the reign of Elizabeth. He commences his first discourse by shewing, in a brief and conclusive manner, that the Goths had no claim whatever to the merit of the invention of the architecture which is called after them. “Gothic is said by Torré to have been first applied as a designation by Cesare Cesariano, the translator of Vitruvius, in his Commentary, 1521,” and we are happy to see that this modern appella
tion, conveying no meaning, is now universally disregarded. It is obvious that, in order to ascertain, with any degree of precision, the date of the earliest specimen of ecclesiastical architecture in this country, the antiquary must commence his researches with Rome, the source from whence, in the middle ages, religion and the fine arts flowed, in a fertilizing stream, over the whole of Europe. The architecture which prevailed in modern Europe, from the irruption of the Goths to the complete developement of the Pointed style, had its origin in the works of Constantine, and the early Christian emperors. The purer architecture of ancient Rome did not allow an arch to be sprung from the capital of a column; nor, indeed, is it at all probable that the arch entered into the composition of the earlier temples. The early Christian churches in this regard deviated from their pagan predecessors; the divisions between the aisles were made by series of arcades, in which a column alone sustained the arch, like the quadrangle of the Royal Exchange. Modern architects have never failed to decry this arrangement as a barbarism, the result of a feeling created by the narrow school of instruction which their books and portfolios afforded, and which, fettering mind and genius by rules and artificial proportions, would pronounce a novel feature to be necessarily bad, merely because it deviated from precedent. In many of our ancient churches we meet with a similar arrangement. For instance, Waltham Abbey, Minster Church in Thanet, Gloucester nave, and others, at the same time that in some cases, as at St. Alban's, the arch rises from a pier, with an impost so decidedly Roman, that it is evident the architects must have seen and studied the purer specimens of art in the Eternal City, if they did not actually derive their authority from the arcades of the Colosseum. Mr. Dallaway, on pursuing this line of research, takes a more extended view of the question than the generality of writers who have paid attention to the subject have done; and we are pleased to see that, in so doing, he points out the only mode of arriving at the true era of many specimens of art in this land. Without connecting the province of the reviewer with the essayist, we cannot help aiding the design of our author, by noticing some of the features which our more ancient churches possessed in common with the Roman basilica. Our early Norman or Saxon churches shew an oblong mave or chancel, with a semicircular absis, the ground-plan bearing a close resemblance to that of a Roman church, without ailes. So the precedent for the uncovered timber roofs of Ely, and other Norman churches, may be sought in the church of St. Paul, without the walls of Rome, as well as in old St. Peter’s ; and not only was the general form adopted, but the detail was in some instances exceedingly well imitated from the parent style. Malmesbury offers an example of this kind; witness its “guilloche inclosing bas-relievos,” as well as the following example : “The doorway of the church of Kenilworth, in Warwickshire, exhibits the caput bovis, fret moulding and paterie, in the spandrils, ornaments more essentially peculiar to the Roman manner.”—p. 25. We shall not pursue this branch of the subject further, but we hope to see it taken up by some able hand, and the Roman parentage of Norman architecture fully established by means of parallels. The Pointed style, as it prevailed in the different states of Europe, until the close of the fourteenth century, is historically considered in the Second Discourse, which is concluded by a glossary of ancient French terms of art, a very acceptable and useful companion to any student who seeks to attain a correct knowledge of the history of this art. We can only find space for one extract. “In the church of St. Omer, (at Rouen,) is a slab, with two portraits in brass, of an old and a young man, in lay habits, each of which points to a plan upon a tablet in one hand, and with a compass in the other. Inscription, ‘ALEx ANDRE DE BERNEval, Maistre de GEuvres des Maçonerie de ceste eglise, Mccc.cx1.’”—p. 112. The Third Discourse treats upon Florid Gothic, the author assigning the period for its existence to commence in 1400, and to end in 1520. We think the prior date much too early, as the author includes in this variety the
chapel of Henry VII., as well as those other late and gorgeous specimens of architecture which were executed in a style far more elaborate than the generality of buildings of the fifteenth century. This section is concluded by a glossary of ancient English terms of architecture. The following supposition of our au. thor is deserving of attention:
“Pendents, or Pendentives, were first executed in timber frames, before they were attempted in stone, as in Crosby Hall. The choir of the Cathedral of S; David's is a most curious example.”—p. 151.
Perhaps one of the most useful portions of Mr. Dallaway's work is the Appendix of illustrations to his Fourth Discourse, which treats of the architecture of our national churches. Here, we have tabular views of all the English cathedrals, with their dates, founders, dimensions, and remarkable parts of the structure, comprising, in a small space, with an excellent system of arrangement, a great body of information, which can only be acquired by great research and much reading. Other tables are added, presenting parallels of our ancient churches in various associations, as well as the arrangement of a vast number of buildings in order of date. Having dismissed the subject of ecclesiastical architecture, our author treats the military variety with the like minute attention, accompanying his remarks with a series of ancient castles, ranged in order of date. The information will be found equally valuable for reference as the tables of churches which we have before noticed. The Sixth and last Discourse, which is upon the Tudor style, contains a treasury of information on a most interesting portion of the architectural antiquary's studies, our old English domestic architecture. We much wished to have treated this branch of Mr. Dallaway's book more at large, but the space we have already occupied forbids it. The Historical Account of Master and Free Masons is learnedly and rationally written. Mr. Dallaway avoids any inquiry into those remote ages in which the visionary advocates for the antiquity of the craft, find, as all do who are determined to see whatever suits their own views, every indication of modern freemasonry. Our author's historical account concerns that period when the freemasons were literally “architects,” and will, therefore, be read with the more pleasure. Further we are not inclined to enter into this subject. We are not “brethren of the craft;” and though we “make no sign” to Mr. Dallaway, we cannot close his book without rendering him our thanks for the store of information which he has collected and given to the antiquarian world, on an inexhaustible topic of research.
Military Memoirs of an Infantry Officer, 1809-1816. 12mo. pp. 472.
THE actual operations in which this author has always modestly embodied his suggestions, comprize the most important period that, we think, ever occurred in Britain; for it commences when, shut out from the Continent, the writer was in that extraordinary and gallant band, the first real British army for nearly a century, who sought an inlet at Walcheren, and was despoiled by disease; and afterwards, when Sir John Moore's retreat had rendered it almost hopeless, resumed it in Portugal. After struggles equally glorious and melancholy, this little volume carries us through many portions of the Peninsular war, and through the battle of Waterloo to the occupation of France.
Many efficient and delightful pens
Christian Theoloyy from the Latin of Benedict Pietet. 12mo.—A work of piety and knowledge, written by one, who (it is said) may be regarded as the last of those illustrious orthodox Divines who presided over the Church of Geneva, and who contributed by their indefatigable labours and writings to render it the bulwark of the reformation. Shortly after the death of Pictet, the Church of Geneva commenced her grievous delusion ; the pure and scriptural doctrines taught by Calvin, Beza, Diodati, were exchanged for those crude and reckless alterations of human speculation, which may be comprehended under the name of Theology, and thus Geneva took her place on the melancholy list of those Churches, which have departcd from the faith, and left their final love. This work contains much
have already made a portion of these
events history, with all its blandishments. Highly do we indeed appreciate Dr. Southey on one hand and Col. Napier on the other; yet we do not hesitate to say that the present volume will be perused with great pleasure even after them, by the general reader; while to the youth destined for the military profession it will be a delightful and most important companion. Taking his own service as the ground-work, the author accompanies every step of its progress by sound instruction, whether in cantonments in England and Ireland, on board ship, or in the field; shews the absurdity of mere drill at home, while the practice of what is necessary to commencing regimental operations in the field is neglected; treats strategy and the morale, as well as materiel, of an army, with the skill of Frontinus; and points out remedies for defects from actual experience. Nor is military law neglected. With all this he is a clear and accurate observer of men and things, and his accounts of the scenes of his marches would shame many who have written on them with better opportunities at leisure.
Some new facts also will be found that have escaped others, and some valuable critical notices of occurrences, without offence. We find no further clue to the author than that he commanded a company, and apparently in a Scottish regiment; and from Scotticisms, as well as his book being published at Edinburgh, that he is a native of Scotland.
valuable information, brought together in a convenient compass. It is not such a work as has been produced by a Professor of Theology belonging to the Church of England; but there is much to commend in it, and little to disapprove.
The Gospel of the Old Testament, an explanation of the types and figures by which Christ was exhibited under the legal Dispensation. By Samuel Mather. 2 vols. —A very learned, useful, and satisfactory work, exhibiting the fullness and fre. quency of the types of the Old Testament, and their close and accurate fulfilment in the New. We are not aware of any work on the subject that has greater claims to the attention of the Theological student.
On Monday the 5th, being the first Monday in May, the Members of the Royal Academy opened their Rooms at Somerset House, with their annual Exhibition of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, which, as a whole, may be pronounced a tolerably good one. The outcry raised against the too great o of portraiture at these exhibitions was heard even during the lifetime of LAwkeNCE and JAckson, and, now that death has robbed us of those popular artists, it is not surprising that the evil should have been felt in an aggravated degree. The discussion which took place in the House of Commons a few weeks since seems, however, to have had a salutary effect, as the academic bias in this respect, and the evidences of exclusiveness which have marked the proceedings of the Committees charged with the hanging of the pictures, are this year less obvious. The works composing this, the sixtysixth exhibition to which we have more particularly to direct the attention of our readers, are the following: No. 54. Portrait of His Grace the Duke of Wellington, in the uniform of Constable of the Tower, with his charger, painted for the Merchant Tailors' Company, and to be placed in their Hall in the city of London; No. 122. Not at home; No. 134. Portrait of the Queen in the dress worn by her Majesty at the Coronation; and No. 148, The Spanish Mother, by WILKIE. These productions are all what might be expected from a man of Wilkie's genius, but the fancy subjects appear to be more generally admired than the portraits. The richness of tone and the harmony of Not at Home are equalled by nothing in the rooms. No. 37. A Portrait; and No. 90. The Cardinal, by ETTY. Of these portraits, which are both line, we give the preference to the former. No. 106. The Port of Leghorn; No. 154. Cologne, and several otherlandscapes, by CALcott. The great charm of these will be found rather in their distances than their foregrounds, the formality of which corresponds but little with the reality of nature. No. 52. The Fountain of Indolence; No. 75. The Golden Bough; No. 175. Penice; and No. 199, Wreckers—coast of Northumberland, with a steam-boat assisting a ship off-shore, by TURNER. The whole of these pictures, but more particularly the two first, present additional proofs of the fine poetic taste of the artist. No. 61. Portrait of Frederick Pollock,
Esq., by PHILLIPs. To have hit off the strongly-marked features of this eminent special É. required, perhaps, no very extraordinary effort of the pencil; the least agreeable of their peculiarities appear, however, to have been considerably modi. fied; and as this has been effected without any perceptible sacrifice of their identity, we may pronounce the portrait one of the most satisfactory in the Gallery, as it has the further merit of being well painted. No. 13. Scene of the olden Time, at Bolton Abbey, by LANDSEER. We do not find any marked improvement in the artist's two or three minor productions distributed in different parts of the Exhibition; but this, which we understand has been painted for the Duke of Devonshire, certainly, surpasses, great as they have been, all his former achievements. No. 194. Editha and the monks searching for the body of Harold, by HilroN. The historian informs us that “the body, stripped of its armour, was so disfigured that the monks were unable to distinguish it. In this emergency they had recourse to Editha, who, with the keen eye of affection, recognized in it the remains of her lover.” This picture is painted on an immense scale, and though the countenance of Editha is perhaps a little theatrical, and the general effect of it somewhat tame, it has much of the excellence that has distinguished the former works of the artist. No. 62. Portrait of Sir Henry Halford, Bart. G. C. H.; No. 67. Portrait of the Aing ; No. 123. Ariadne ; and No. 139. The Marquess of Ereter, by Sir M. A. SHEE. he President is this year more effective than usual. The portrait of his Majesty is a correct likeness, as well as a good picture, and the same may be said of the other two. Ariadne strikes us as being rather deficient in youth and beauty. No. 64. The Escape of Francesco di Carrara, last lord of Padua, and Taddea. d'Este, his wife (who was ill at the time) Jrom the power of Galleazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, by EASTLAKE. A picture of great merit, but the texture of the flesh is susceptible of a little more delicacy and refinement. No. 112. Cottage Hospitality; and No. 133. The Morning Lesson, by Colliss. Both in the usual excellent taste of the artist. No. 19. Portrait of William Wordsworth, Esq. painted for St. John's College, Cambridge; No. 74. Portrait of Mr. Justice Bosanquet; and No. 177. Portrait of Francis Const, Esq., by Pickensgill. Of these three portraits, we consider that of
the venerable judge by far the most effective, but they are all good. No. 169. The Orphan, by ALLAN. No. 20. Portrait of Miss Horne, by Sir W. BEECHEY. One of the most agreeable likenesses we have seen by the same hand. No. 158. Friar Lawrenee, by BRIGGs. A little picture, not without merit, but wanting force. Juliet is not sufficiently beautiful, nor the Friar sufficiently old. His beard, which, by the bye, is very mechanically painted, does not seem consistent with the comparative juvenility of his features. No. 21. The Isola Bella, Lago Maggiore, by STANFIELD. A small, but bright and pleasing composition. The artist has a larger picture of inferior merit. No. 325. The Festa of Pie di Grotta, by Uwins. Another delightful little performance in the way of Eastlake, but reminding us of the works of that artist more probably by its similarity of subject, than by any imitation of his style. No. 351. The Installation of Capt. Rock, by M'Clise. A picture abounding in talent, but not pleasing in matter, which is, as may be inferred from the title, of a boisterous tendency. No. 371. Davie Deans, by KNIGHT. The most effective scene we have met with by the same artist for some time, and this is saying a great deal. No. 285. The Quarrel Scene between Cardinal Wolsey and the Duke of Buckingham, by HART. Mr. HART appears to be rapidly realizing the high expectations that have been entertained of him. We consider the present the best historical subject exhibited this season. No. 261. Portrait of Captain Ross ; and No. 414. A Portrait (of a lady) by FAULKNER. These two specimens are among the best of their class, and cannot fail to extend the reputation of the justly esteemed artist. DANIEL's Indian Scenes do not satisfy us, nor can we speak with much favour of Cooper's repetitions, or of HowARD's contributions, which are feeble and mannered. PATTEN's large picture of Cymon and Iphigenia (No. 14.) is a bold attempt, but we cannot say that we think the artist has succeeded in obscuring Sih Joshua, who, it may be recollected, has left his view of the same subject. EDMONSTox, LEE, HAvell, CoNsTABLE, CAFE, MRs. CARPENTER, SIMPson, and LEwis, have also contributed to the general interest and variety of the Exhibition. DENNING and CHAllon have acquitted themselves with their usual credit in the
ExHIBITION OF THE SOCIETY OF PAINTERS IN WATER COLOURS, The Exhibition of this, the elder association of painters in water colours, in Pall Mall East, opened on the 28th of April, a period of the month which of course precludes the possibility of our offering any remarks upon it in the last number of our Magazine. We have now the satisfaction to state that the works exhibited, form a collection highly creditable to the talents of the respective members and associates by whom they have been contributed. We regret that it is not in our power to specify and enlarge upon every performance with the minuteness to which it may be entitled; we may, however, observe in a general way, that, unlike every other exhibition of its kind, this of the Society of PAINTERS IN WATER Colours, as the result of the limited principle of its organization, contains little that is inferior, and nothing that is absolutely bad. The exhibitors, though few in number, are kept most select, and it is in this way that the character of the institution is so effectually upheld. The only inconvenience arising from a paucity of exhibitors where all are so competent, is perhaps the slight approach to sameness, which—while of the aggregate, each of them individually contributes so many-manifests itself in their exhibitions. Fielding's Landscapes this year are almost innumerable; but when we consider the general excellence of them, we