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an old Bibliographer, which bears the proud distinction of being the first bible printed with a date subjoined, and the place and name of the printer also. This copy is however upon paper, a circumstanee which increases its rarity, although it may impair its durability. Its dimensions are 154 by 113 inches, and the two volumes are bound in French red morocco, of the fashion of the last century. This library also contains a portion of the same Bible upon vellum, in excellent preservation and beautifully illuminated. It unfortunately contains the New Testament only, and as it measures 15% by 114 inches, our regret is increased that the correspondent parts should have been severed, by whatever accident, from this most inviting portion of the sacred volume. It is bound in blue morocco, with gilt leaves. In the same character with the preceding work, we have the Augustinus de Civitate Dei, executed by Schoyffer alone, in 1473, folio, a copy of which the beauty of the paper and the lustre of the ink would alone entitle it to notice.
I cannot quit the subject of Mentz Typography without noticing the curious Peregrinations of Breydenbach, of which the present copy, printed upon vellum, and measuring 12 inches by 8%, from the style of its ancient red morocco attire, appears to have formerly adorned the celebrated Harleian Collection.
The first book printed in Italy now attracts our attention, being the celebrated Lactantius, printed in the Monastery of Subiaco in 1465, folio. The present copy, unhappily deficient in the errata, measures 12# by 8 inches, and is bound in blue morocco.
In this place I cannot refrain from noticing a most beautiful copy of the Augustinus de Civitate Dei, printed in the same monastery in 1467, folio. This work is admirably executed in double columns, and the present copy has been uncommonly well preserved. It measures 15% by 10% inches, and is bound in maroon inorocco.
Of the first editions of the Classics this library contains a large majority, and although the true Bibliographer may justly lament the absence of the first editions of Virgil, of Lucretius, of Boethius, and Catullus,” of Martial and Apicius, he must rejoice at finding the Spira Virgil of 1470, upon vellum, measuring 12% by 8% inches, and attired in red morocco.
Let him also read the following list of first editions of the Classics, taken at random, and be thankful.
Ammianus Marcellinus. Romae, per Sachsel et Golsch, 1474, folio, measuring 13 inches by 83, and bound in red morocco. Apuleius. Romae, 1469, folio, measuring 12; by 9 inches, and bound in red morocco; uniformly with the Aulus Gellius. Romae, 1469, folio, which has the first leaf of the table inlaid, and measures 12# by 8% inches. Caesar. Romae, 1469, folio, measuring l l ; by 84 inches, and bound in red morocco. Lucanus. Romae, 1469, folio, whose dimensions are 12# by 83, and whose attire is red morocco. Silius Italicus. Romae, 1471, folio, measuring 123 by 85 inches, and bound in old blue morocco. The Calphurnius, printed in the same type with the present volume, and sometimes bound up with it, is in this collection, contained in a separate volume, which is also bound in blue morocco.
I need not inform any but “the general reader,” that the six preceding articles were all printed by Sweynheym and Pannartz.
Here too is the first Livy, by the same artists, a noble folio tome, which has been tastefully re-bound in maroon morocco, with bronze clasps.
• Of the Sylva of Statius, however, which forms properly the last portion of the volume, containing the Catullus, Tibullus and Propertius, and bearing the date of 1472, folio, a very fine copy, measuring l l ; by 8 inches, and bound in red morocco, is contained in this collection.
By its side too, may be seen the rival edition of Ulric Han, in two volumes, folio, bound in red morocco. But the first four leaves of this copy have been inlaid. From Rome also we have the first editions of Quintilianus “in pinea regione via Papae," Roma, 1470, folio, attributed to Philip de Lignamine; a very fine copy with rough leaves, measuring 13% by 94 inches, and bound in red morocco; and of Suetonius, Romae, 1470, also printed “ in pinea regione, by the same artist, a copy whose dimensions are 124 by 8# inches, and which is bound in red morocco. Turning our eyes to Venice, the nursing mother of the infant art, we
find A vellum copy of the Justin, printed there by Jenson in 1470, folio. The present copy, however, is not calculated to sustain the same of that unrivalled artist, being unfortunately defective in the first five leaves, containing the table of Chapters, which is awkwardly enough supplied by manuscript. The volume measures 10 inches by 7, and is bound in red morocco. A beautiful copy of the first edition of Priscian, by Vindelin de Spira, with the date 1470, folio. This volume measures 12# by 9 inches, and is bound in red morocco. The first edition of the Comedies of Plautus, the joint labour of Vindelin de Spira, and John de Colonia, in 1472, folio, a copy of which the first leaf is inlaid, and whose dimensions are 124 by 8% inches. It is attired in red morocco, with gilt leaves, &c. The valuable first edition of Ausonius, printed by Bartholomaeus Girardinus, in 1472, in folio. This is a short but perfect copy, measuring 10% by 73 inches. It is bound in red morocco, in the French style of the last century. The Spira Martial, measuring 10% by 74 inches, and bound in blue morocco. A noble copy of the Natural History of Pliny, first printed by John de Spira in 1469, folio, measuring 16 inches by 10%, and sumptuously bound in dark green morocco, with gilt clasps. And a beautiful copy of the same work, printed upon vellum, by Nicholas Jenson, in 1472, folio, measuring likewise 16 inches by 10%, and also bound in green morocco. Macrobius, printed by Nicolas Jenson, in 1472, folio, a copy whose dimensions are 123 by 8% inches, and which is bound in red morocco. By the same eminent typographer we find also a very fine copy of Solinus de situ Orbis, 1473, folio, printed upon very pure vellum. This elegant volume measures 10; by 73 inches, and is bound in red morocco.
Pursuing the vellum theme I may mention the following beautiful little volumes from the Aldine Press, all printed upon vellum. To wit:
The Euripides of 1503, in two volumes 8vo. measuring 64 by 33, and bound
in purple stained morocco. - The Martial of 1501, in octavo, with a gratuitous illumination correspond
ing to the ornaments on the first page. The present copy measures 6; by 33,
and is attired in an old garment of red morocco. The Statius, of 1502, octavo, with the first page illuminated, measuring 6% by
4 inches, and still retaining its original vellum wrapper.
The Orlando Furioso of Ariosto, printed upon vellum in quarto, 1542; a copy measuring 84 by 6% inclues, and attired in an old covering of calf.
Touching Italian poetry, I may notice
The first edition of Il Canzoniere of Petrarch, printed by Vindelin de Spira, in 1470, folio. The present is a fine copy, measuring 104 by 6}, and bound in red morocco.
Reverting to Classical Literature, The first edition of Sallust, printed by the same printer in the same year, claims our notice, the copy under notice measuring 83 by 64, and being clothed in red morocco of a quaint fashion. To the same ingenious printer we are probably indebted for the first edition of Tacitus in folio, printed about the year 1470, of which the copy in this library is in genuine condition, measuring 114 by 8 inches, and bound in old red morocco. To Venice may also be ascribed the first edition of Pliny’s Epistles, printed by Valdarfer in 1471, folio; the present copy measuring 104 by 7%, and being bound in russia. But I should weary the patience of my readers were I to enumerate all the first editions of the Classic authors which owe their birth to Venice. Suffice it to remind them, that to the indefatigable efforts of Aldus, and the successful typographical career of his descendants, we are indebted for the first printed impressions of Æschylus, Sophocles, Pindar and Theocritus, of Aristophanes and Musaeus, of Aristotle, Theophrastus, and Galen, as well as of Athenaeus, Herodotus, Plato, Plutarch, Strabo and Thucydides. Of all of which estimable authors of antiquity, copies of becoming condition will not be sought in vain upon the well-stored shelves of the Georgian Library. It were inexcusable, however, to omit those rare and early editions of the Classic Authors, among which precedence is due to the
De Officiis of Cicero, printed at Mayence, in 1465, folio. This copy is upon vellum, much defaced by MS. notes. It measures, however, 9; by 63, and is bound in old French red morocco. Equaliing this work in rarity are the Tusculanae Quaestiones of the same author, printed by Ulric Han at Rome, in 1469, a copy adorned with three of the most elegant initials I ever beheld, measuring 11 inches by 73, and being attired in red morocco. Two volumes of the Azzoquidi Ovid, printed at Bologna, in fine sound condition, measuring 134 by 8%, and bound in red morocco. The first edition of Florus, printed at Paris in the Sorbonne; a copy which, though not so fine as could be desired, is yet happily in a perfect state. It measures 8 inches by 53, and is bound in red morocco. The first edition of Eutropius, printed by Laver at Rome, measuring 11 inches by 8, and, though wormed, in genuine condition, in red morocco. The Moravian Seneca, printed at Naples in 1475, folio, a beautiful copy, measuring 16 inches by 11 §, bound in green morocco, with clasps; and the Vitruvius, by George Herolt, a fine copy, of 11% by 7#, in red morocco. All serve to augment the riches of this Library. To these succeed the Minutianian Cicero, printed at Milan in 1498-9. The present copy being bound in two volumes, in red morocco, measuring 158 by 10 inches. The first edition of AEsop, printed without date, at the same place. The third part of which was added to complete the Royal copy, by the gift of Dr. Charles Burney of Greenwich, in 1799; but it is unfortunately of less marginal amplitude than the preceding parts of the volume, which measure 8; by 6 inches. It is bound in purple morocco. To Milan also may probably be referred Puteolanus' edition of Pliny's Panegyric, printed in 1476, quarto. The present copy measuring 83 by 64, and bound in red morocco. - The first edition of Pomponius Mela, printed at Milan in 1471, quarto, a copy of which the date has been supplied by manuscript, and which measures 7 by 5, being bound in red morocco. To the above I may add the first editions of Isocrates, Hesiod, and Theocritus, all executed in the same character at Milan about the year 1493, in folio.
Turning from Milan to Florence, we are struck with the eagerness with which the cities of Italy availed themselves of the advantages afforded by the Teutonic invention of Printing. In proof of this, it may suffice to mention
The first Homer, printed at Florence in 1488. A fine sound folio tome, measuring 13 inches by 9, and bound in red morocco, having a portrait of Homer prefixed thereto.
The Callimachus, printed in capital letters at Florence, quarto, being the rarest of the fine works so executed at the close of the fifteenth century. The present copy is a very desirable one, measuring 8 inches by 5%, and bound in green morocco.
Of the remaining four, the Euripides claims precedence, for its rarity as well as beauty; the present copy is a very fine one, measuring 8; by 64. The Gnomae and Musæus measure 73 by 5 inches, and the Anthologia 83 by 6 in. The Apollonius Rhodius is of the dimensions of 8% by 63. All these four volumes are bound uniformly with the Callimachus, in green morocco.
From Florence we have also the first edition of Orpheus, printed by Philip Junta, in 1500, quarto, a copy measuring 83 by 64, and bound in calf; and the Lucian, usually attributed to the same printer, of which the present copy measures 134 by 83, and bound in old blue morocco, of Gallic aspect.
To these may be added the Xenophon, and Plutarch, from the same press; together with the first edition of Celsus, edited by Fontius, bearing the date of 1478, in folio. The present copy being very fine, measuring 103 by 84, and bound in red morocco.
Reverting to Germany, we have
The Comedies of Terence, printed by Mentelin, at Strasburg, measuring 114 by 8%, and bound in purple-stained morocco, of great rarity. The Epistles inscribed to Seneca, distinguished by the singular form of the letter R, and correctly attributed to the same press; the present copy measures 11 by 8 inches, and is arrayed in blue morocco. To Mentelin also, we are indebted for the first edition of Valerius Maximus, of which the present copy is very fine, measuring 12% by 84, and bound in green morocco, apparently of French manufacture. To the above I may add the dateless and nameless edition of Horace, executed with the same types as the Apophthegms of Plutarch, also in quarto. A book usually considered as the first edition of the Roman Lyrist, and of extreme rarity. The present copy is in a very tender condition, having been washed throughout. It is unfortunately defective in the first and last leaves of the Ars Poetica, a defect which has caused the binder to place that piece in the middle of the epodes. In other respects, however, the pieces are rightly placed, the Carmina concluding with the Colophonic verses: “Hoc quicunque dedit Venusini carmen Horatii; Et studio formis correctum effinxit in istis Vivat acterno si nomine saccula vincat Omnia. ceu nunquam numeris abolebitur auctor.”
occupying the last place. This volume, of which the last leaf has been pieced, measures 83 by 6% inches, and is bound in old calf.
The Bolognese edition of Valerius Flaccus, a copy of 11% by 73, and bound in red morocco; and the first edition of Dante, printed by Numeister in 1472, folio, a very fine genuine copy, measuring 10% by 7 inches, and bound in red nuorocco.
I now approach a theme of high interest to every Englishman, being the records of the progress of the art of Printing in England, under the auspices of its founder William Caxton. But I must first briefly notice those productions of his press which are reasonably supposed to have preceded his typographical advent into these realms, beginning with
The Recueil of the Histories of Troye, probably executed in 1471, at Cologne. The present copy being bound in russia, and measuring 103 by 7# inches, was purchased at West's sale for 32l. 11s. by “honest Thomas Payne,” who afterwards had the good fortune of supplying its deficiencies from another copy.— Perfect copies, indeed, of this, the first book printed in the English language, are of the greatest degree of rarity. The Game or Playe of Chesse, folio, frynishide the last day of Marche, 1474. The present copy measures 93 by 7 inches, and is bound in red morocco. We come now to the second edition of the same work, being in all probability the first book printed within the realm of England, unless the following article be deemed more fairly entitled to that distinction. The present copy of this rare book has several leaves pieced, the sixth inlaid, and the last pasted on. It measured 10% by 73, and is bound in purple-stained morocco. The Book of the hoole Lyf of Jason, by Raoul le Fevre, translated out of the Frenshe, folio, William Caxton, without date or place, but probably executed about the year 1475. Of the present copy of this extremely rare book, the first leaf has been inlaid, and the second repaired, but its condition is throughout most desirable. It is ruled with red lines, and measures 103 by 73, being bound in red morocco. Chaucer. The Boke of the Tales of Canterburye, with the Prayer or retraction for the Parson's Tale, folio. The first edition. The present copy, which is quite a treasure in its way, measures 103 by 74, and contains a portrait of the father of English song, illuminated by Occleve his contemporary, upon vellum ; a copy of a grant to Chaucer, in 1399, published by Rawlinson in 1752; and two Letters from Mr. Abr. Jos. Rudd to Mr. Ames, dated St. John's Coll. Oxon. 1746, and relating to the early editions of the poet. This volume is bound in old russia gilt, and appears, from the following MS. note, to have belonged to Mr. West: “It is the first edition of Chaucer, printed by Caxton, is the only perfect one known in England. The Earls of Pembroke and Oxford told me, after the utmost inquiry they never could see one. Some fragments are in the hands of Sir Peter Thompson, lately Mr. Ames, Mr. Ratcliff, and St. John's College, but united will not make a perfect copy. J. WEST.” It was in fact purchased for the King at his sale in 1773, for the sum of 47 l. 15s. 6d. Chaucer’s Troylus and Cresseyde, folio. “Explicit per Caxton.” Fine and perfect copy, in red morocco, measuring 103 and 73. The Book of Fame, made by Gefferey Chaucer. Imprynted by William Caxton. A fine copy, measuring 103 by 7. In red morocco. Liber Festivalis, folio, imprynted by William Caxton at Westminster. The first leaf has been mended, and the last inlaid, otherwise a fine copy, measuring 11 by 73, in red morocco. Lydgate's Life of our Ladye, ‘imprynted by Wyllyam Caxton,’ folio. A large copy, in blue morocco, measuring 103 by 74. Speculum Vite Christi; folio, Caxton; measuring 10% by 73, in red morocco. The Chastysing of Goddes Chyldren, folio, Caxton. Perfect. It measures 103 by 73, in red morocco. The Lyf of Saynt Wenefryde. William Caxton. With the Mass in Latin at the end, folio, measuring 104 by 74, in red morocco. “Tullius de Senectute.” “Explicit per Caxton,” folio. A very sound copy, measuring 8% by 73, in red morocco. Directorium Sacerdotum, folio. “Caxton me fieri fecit.” The only book printed by Caxton in the Latin tongue. This copy wants the title, which has been supplied by Whitaker. It measures 10% by 73, and is bound in russia. Statuta apud Westmonasterium edita anno primo Regis Ricardi tercii. Folio. Caxton, no date, 15 leaves, measuring 103 by 7%, quite perfect, in old red morocco. Boecius de Consolacione Philosophie, ending with the Epitaphium Galfridi Chaucer. A very fine copy, measuring 114 by 8 inches, in red morocco. The Dictes and Sayinges of Philosophers. Translated by Antony Earl Rivers.