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Lakes and Rivers. What is the most important river of Cali

fornia ? Describe its course. Through what bodies of water does

Situation. — How is Nevada bounded on the north ? On the

it reach the ocean? What large stream from the south flows into east? What state forms most of the boundary on the south and

the me waters? In what directions do the tributaries in this the boundary on the west? What parallel marks its northern
Situation. – What state forms the northern boundary of Cali- central river system flow? What considerable streams rise in the limit? What meridian its eastern limit? What is the shape of
fornia ? What degree of latitude divides these states ? What Coast Range and empty into the Pacific Ocean? Name the prin- the state ?

In what high natural region is the state located ? In
country on the south? What parallel named on the map nearly cipal lakes. Which is the largest

, and where is it located? What what part of this plateau ? marks the southern boundary? How many degrees north and noted lake at the angle of the state and partly in Nevada ? What

Surface. What is the general character of the surface ? south does this state extend ? How many miles ?

How is it peculiarity have all these lakes? Ans. — They have no surface What are the principal mountain ranges in the western part? In bounded on the east? How on the west? Its average width is outlet.

the middle part? In the eastern part? Is the general elevation
how many miles, according to the scale ? What is the length of Counties. How many counties in California ? Name those

its coast line? Its general direction ? What meridian nearly located in the Sacramento valley. Those that border on San

Lakes and Rivers. — What lakes in the north-western part ?
equally divides the state ? What points on the Atlantic coast Francisco Bay. Those that border on the Pacific Ocean south of what one partly in California ? Have these lakes any surface
correspond with its northern and southern limits ?

San Francisco. North of San Francisco. (What county do you outlet? Name and locate the largest river. Name its chief tribu-
Surface. – What mountain range in the eastern portion of Cali- live in? Bound it. In what part of the state? In what direction, taries on the south. On the north. What part of the state does
fornia ? Its direction and extent? What general mountain range and how far, from the capital? What is the county seat?] Which not appear to be well watered ?
in the western part? Its direction and extent? What is the char- is the largest county in extent? The smallest ?

Counties and Cities. How many counties in Nevada ? How
acter of the country between these ranges ? What is the most Cities. Name and locate the state capital. The largest city: do they compare in extent? Name the three central counties.
important valley in the northern portion ? Describe its extent. How far, and in what direction, from the capital? What chief

What counties west of Churchill County? What and where is
The most noted valley in the southern-central portion ? How ex- cities in the central part of the state? In the northern half? In the capital of the state? What other chief cities, and where
tensive? What is the character of the seacoast? What are the the southern half? What is the most important seaport? Where located? (What county do you live in? Bound it. In what part
most noted mountain peaks?

Where is the Yosemite region ? located? What others? Are there many harbors on the coast? of the state? What is the county seat?]
What is the surface of the southern part of the state ? How is What parts of the state are most thickly settled ? What parts the
this peculiar as shown by the rivers ?

most sparsely settled ?


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by numerous small valleys opening towards the ocean, the most im- Salt Lake in Utah, are so intensely salt, bitter, and alkaline, that no portant of which are the Russian River, Napa, Santa Clara, Salinas, fish can live in them. and San Gabriel valleys.

Owens Lake, south-east of Mono, is also a saline lake. The Colorado desert, in the south-eastern part of the state, east of the In the northern part of the state, on the boundary line of Oregon, there

San Bernardino Mountains, belongs to the Great Basin, but has a very is a group of fresh-water lakes, of which the largest are Goose, Rhett, moderate elevation, and in some places is below the level of the sea. and Klamath lakes. It is dry, sandy, hot, and barren.

IV. CLIMATE. The plateau region, east of the Sierra Nevada, is a part of the Great

The climate of California is sub-tropical. There are two Basin, which includes Nevada and Utah. It is an arid country, generally destitude of vegetation, with the exception of sage brush and seasons, - a dry season, from May to November (summer); and bunch grass and the forests on the eastern slopes of the Sierra a rainy season, from November to May (winter). Snow falls Nevada Mountains.

only in the mountain regions. In general, the climate is healthScenery. - California is noted for its picturesque scenery.

ful, breezy, and invigorating, subject to no sudden extremes of

heat and cold. In the coast belt the climate is remarkably The Yosemite Valley, in the heart of the Sierra Nevada, attracts tourists mild and equable. In the Sacramento basin and the foot-hills

from all parts of the world. It is a glacial valley seven miles long, and a mile and a half wide, with almost vertical walls of solid granite from of the Sierra Nevada the summer is very hot and dry, but the 3,000 to 4,000 feet in height. It has numerous waterfalls, of which the rainy season is cool and delightful. most remarkable is the Yosemite Falls, where the water plunges down The rain-winds of California are the south-west return trade-winds, which 1,600 feet in one unbroken sheet, and 2,600 feet in three leaps.

have their moisture condensed as they are forced to ascend mountain Mount Shasta, in the extreme northern part of the state, is a volcanic slopes. cone, which rises 14,440 feet above the level of the sea, and 10,000 feet

In summer the great tropical rain-belt of the trade-winds is moved from above the level of the surrounding plateau. It is one of the most 70 to 10° farther north than in winter. As a consequence the return beautiful of mountains; and the surrounding country is a favorite trade-winds descend to the earth mostly to the northward of California. resort for tourists and hunters.

Besides, any rain-clouds falling upon California have their moisture The Big Tree Groves, near the Yosemite Valley, contain some of the

dissipated and absorbed by the hot air rising from the heated earth largest trees in the world.

during the long, dry, hot summer. Lake Tahoe is a favorite resort for summer tourists.

The cause of the equable climate along the coast belt is the return Japan

current, which moves in a broad stream from 20 to 30 miles wide the III. DRAINAGE.

entire length of the coast. This current in winter is warmer than the The two largest rivers, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin,

neighboring land: in summer it is cooler. This difference of tempera

ture renders the climate more equable, and also causes the dense fogs drain the Sacramento basin, and flow into the Bay of San

prevailing along the coast both in summer and winter. Francisco. Their tributaries rise in the summits of the Sierra

The strong, chilling, and fog-laden winds that blow in San Francisco Nevada, which supply an abundance of water from melting ice during the summer months are caused by the cold-air currents that and snow during the long dry season.

rush from the ocean through the Golden Gate into the heated valley

of the Sacramento. The Sacramento River, 400 miles long, rises in the lakes of the mountain region around Mount Shasta, and flows south into the Bay of San

V. NATURAL ADVANTAGES. Francisco. It is navigable for small steamers to Red Bluff, 300 miles.

Soil. — The soil of the valleys and rolling hills is fertile and Its chief tributaries are the American, Yuba, and Feather rivers. The San Joaquin, 350 miles long, rises in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, easily tilled, and is well adapted to the production of the

and flows north into the Bay of San Francisco. It is navigable for cereals and the vine. The tulé lands along the banks of the large steamers to Stockton, 120 miles, and for small steamers 75 miles Sacramento and the San Joaquin are exceedingly productive farther. Its chief tributaries are the Kings, Kern, Merced, Tuolumne, when reclaimed and protected by levees from overflow. Fresno, Stanislaus, Calaveras, and Mokelumne rivers.

Minerals. — California is rich in minerals, of which the most The smaller rivers which flow directly into the Pacific are the Klamath

River, Eel River, and Russian River, north of the Bay of San Fran important is gold. The gold region lies chiefly on the western cisco; and the Salinas River and Santa Ana River, to the south of that slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. bay:

Quicksilver-mines are numerous in the northern part of the Coast Range. The rivers of the plateau and desert region east of the Sierra

Petroleum is found in the coast belt south of San Francisco. Nevada Mountains have no outlet to the ocean.

The only coal-mines in the state which are extensively worked are near They are

Monte Diablo, in Contra Costa County. small streams that terminate in salt lakes, or disappear by

There are also in California valuable deposits of iron, copper, and tin, evaporation in the "sinks" of the desert.

though they are not extensively worked. The most important of these rivers are the Mohave (mo-hä've), which Forests. — The western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, and of

sinks in the sands of the Mohave desert: Owens River, which flows the Coast Range north of the Bay of Monterey, are covered by into Owens Lake (salt); the Truckee, which flows into Pryamid Lake in Nevada; Carson River; and Walker River.

extensive forests of conifers, such as pine, fir, and redwood. Lakes. Lake Tahoe, two thirds in California and one third in Nevada, The most durable lumber for building purposes is supplied by the red

is in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, at an elevation of about 6,000 feet. wood trees of the Coast Range.
It is 20 miles long, 10 miles wide, and is noted for its beautiful moun- The oak and sycamore are found in the valleys and foot-hills.
tain scenery:

The Sacramento valley, the southern coast belt, and the plateau and Clear Lake, in the Coast Range, north of the Bay of San Francisco, is a desert region east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, are almost destifavorite summer resort.

tute of trees. Tulare Lake is a large and shallow sheet of water which lies in the The“ Big Trees ” (Sequoia gigantea) are among the wonders of the world.

southern part of the Sacramento valley, and has its outlet in the San Some of these trees are over 100 feet in circumference and 300 feet Joaquin River.

in height. The best known groves are the Calaveras Grove and the Mono Lake lies at the foot of the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada, in Mariposa Grove, both near the Yosemite Valley. There is a forest

a region of extinct volcanic cones. Its waters, like those of Great belt of these trees, from three to six miles in width, extending along

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the Sierra Nevada from the Yosemite region southward for 120 miles. of the Supreme Court, and superintendent of public instruction, all The Sequoia furnishes excellent lumber resembling redwood.

elected by direct vote of the people for a term of four years.

The Legislature consists of a Senate of forty members, elected for four VI. INDUSTRIES,

years, and of an Assembly of eighty members, elected for two years. Agriculture is the leading occupation, the annual wheat-crop The Legislature holds biennial sessions. alone exceeding in value the annual product of the gold and

The judicial power is vested in the Senate sitting as a court of impeachsilver mines. Owing to the diversity of climate, surface, and

ment, in a Supreme Court, superior courts, justices of the peace, and

such inferior courts as may be established by law. The Supreme soil, the agricultural products are exceedingly varied.

Court consists of a chief justice and six associate justices. The Cereals. — In wheat-growing, California ranks as one of the leading Local Government. — The officers of a county government are a board states. Barley and oats are extensively raised.

of supervisors, board of education, treasurer, assessor, tax-collector, The Grape. — The culture of the grape ranks next in importance to district-attorney, sheriff, surveyor, county clerk, and superintendent of

wheat-raising The vine thrives in nearly all parts of the state below common schools. The unit of political division is the school district, an elevation of 4,000 feet. The annual wine product already exceeds the officers of which consist of three school trustees, elected by direct 12,000,000 gallons. In the hot and dry Sacramento basin and in the vote of the people for a term of three years. southern part of the state the grapes are made into raisins.

National Representation. — California is represented in Congress at Fruit. — The central and northern sections of the state are favorable to Washington by two senators and six representatives, and hence is

the culture of apples, pears, peaches, plums, prunes, apricots, and entitled to eight electoral votes.
cherries. Great quantities of plums and apricots are put up in cans
for export, and pears and grapes are extensively shipped by rail to

Eastern cities.

The state has a well-organized system of public schools. Dried prunes, plums, and peaches are important articles of export. The

The state constitution provides that a free school shall be coast belt south of Santa Barbara is noted for the production of the citrus fruits, - oranges, lemons, and limes.

maintained in every school district for at least six months in Other Products. - Bee-culture is an important industry in San Diego the year.

and Los Angeles counties, and great quantities of the finest honey The schools are supported partly by state, by county, and by are sent to Eastern markets. Olive-oil is an important product of the district taxation. olive-orchards. Cotton and tobacco grow in the state, but are not extensively cultivated. Potatoes and other vegetables are grown

Each county has a county superintendent of common schools, elected by along the coast and in the bay counties.

the people for a term of four years, and a county board of education,

consisting of the county superintendent and four members appointed Mining. — For twenty years after the discovery of gold in

by the county board of supervisors. The county board of education 1848, mining was the leading industry in California ; but since has general charge of the schools, and examines teachers. that period it has ranked second in importance to agriculture. Each school district has a board of trustees of three members, elected

at special school elections for three years, one member being elected The annual gold product does not now exceed $17,000,000 ; but formerly,

each year. The school trustees appoint teachers, build schoolhouses, for many years in succession, the annual yield exceeded $50,000,000.

and have the local government of the schools. The total product of the mines since 1848 is estimated to exceed

California raises annually, by direct state tax, more than a million of $1,000,000,000.

dollars for the support of public schools; and the total expenditure Gold is obtained from * quartz-mines " by crushing gold-bearing quartz

for schools in 1883 was over three millions of dollars. rock, and from gravel banks by washing away the earth with streams

State Institutions. — The State University of California, at Berkeley, is of water forced by heavy pressure through strong hose-pipe.

well endowed, and is free to both young men and young women. The Prominent among the other industries are stock-raising, lum- State Normal School, at San José, is attended by a large number of bering, varied manufactures, and a large domestic and foreign

students; and the Branch State Normal School at Los Angeles is a

flourishing institution. The Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and trade.

Blind is located at Berkeley. Stock-raising - The rolling hills and the mountain slopes of Cali

There are numerous denominational colleges and seminaries fornia afford pasturage for large herds of cattle, horses, and sheep.

The coast belt north of San Francisco is noted for its dairy products. and many excellent private schools.
Lumbering. - In the redwood forests of the coast north of San Fran-
cisco, and in some parts of the Sierra Nevada, saw-mills are numer-

IX. HISTORY. ous, and lumbering is the chief industry.

Upper or Alta California was first explored by the Spaniards, Manufactures. — The most important manufactured products are lumber, within fifty years after the discovery of America by Columbus.

flour, wine, liquors, mining machinery, iron-work, woolens, boots and shoes, leather, clothing, canned and dried fruits.

The name “ California" was given by the Spaniards to the region north Commerce. California has an extensive export and import trade. It

of Mexico. The name is taken from an old Crusader romance which is connected by steamship lines with China, Japan, India, the Sand- was very popular in the days of Cortez. wich Islands, Australia, Mexico, and South America. It is connected The Spaniards made their first settlement in Upper California, at San with the Atlantic coast by several trunk lines of railroads, by a steam- Diego, in 1769. San Diego was the first of a series of Missions, ship line via Panama, and by sailing-vessels around Cape Horn. Its

which the Spanish Catholic missionaries established in California, chief exports are wheat, wine, wool, gold, dried and canned fruits. running north from San Diego to San Francisco. Into these MisIts chief imports are tea, coffee, sugar, and manufactured articles of sions the Indians were gathered, and the Padres, or Roman Catholic all descriptions

priests, taught them the arts of civilization. They cultivated the vine, VII. COVERNMENT.

the olive, and the fig, and lived in spacious houses, built of adobe, or The government of California is administered under the pro

sun-dried bricks.

In 1821 Mexico threw off the yoke of Spain, and became an independent visions of the state constitution, which was adopted in the year

republic. Alta or Upper California was then made a Mexican province. 1879.

The first American settlers found their way into California in 1843. In State Government. - The officers of the executive department of the 1846 the war between the United States and Mexico began. The

state government are the governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of Americans in California immediately raised the “bear flag,” and state, comptroller, treasurer, attorney-general, surveyor-general, clerk asserted their independence of Mexico. At this time Capt. John C.

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Fremont, who had been sent west to survey a new route to Oregon, The chief exports are wheat, wine, wool, gold, canned and dried fruits. arrived in California. Fremont united with the Americans, who were The chief imports are manufactured goods of all kinds, sugar, coffee, successful in several encounters with the Mexicans.

and tea. In July, 1846, Commodore Sloat, then commander of the United States San Francisco is the site of a United States branch mint. the largest

fleet on the Pacific coast, hearing of the declaration of war, took pos- and finest in the world. session of Monterey. A little later, Stockton superseded Sloat. He

Sacramento (26,272) in Sacramento County, on the Sactook San Diego, and, aided by Fremont, captured Los Angeles. Late in the year, Gen. Kearny, with a small column from the army operat- ramento River, i 20 miles from its mouth, is the capital of the ing against Mexico on the northern line, reached California after a state. The state Capitol is an imposing building, erected at a cost long and toilsome march from Santa Fé, in New Mexico. Kearny of three millions of dollars. Sacramento is the site of the extenarrived in time to take part in the battle of San Gabriel, Jan. 8, 1847. sive machine-shops of the Central Pacific Railroad. It is in the This action overthrew the Spanish power, and established the author

center of a rich farming region, and has an extensive trade. ity of the United States in California. The Mexican war was ended by the treaty of Guadaloupe

Los Angeles (50,394), in Los Angeles County, is the second city in the

state, and the business center of Southern California. It is noted for its Hidalgo, Feb. 2, 1848. It was just before this treaty was concluded that the first discovery of gold in California took place tourists. It is the seat of the Branch State Normal School.

orange groves and vineyards, and is a favorite winter resort for Eastern (Jan. 19, 1848), – a discovery which resulted in founding a Oakland, in Alameda County, on the east side of the Bay of San Fran great state on the Pacific coast.

cisco, 10 miles from San Francisco, ranks in population as the third city The news of the discovery reached the States; and it soon spread

in the state. It is closely connected with San Francisco by ferries. It is a throughout the world that California was the golden land, the true

favorite place of residence on account of its trees, its gardens, and its mild " El Dorado.” An extraordinary rush of immigration to the diggings

climate. The city has important manufactories of hosiery, cotton goods,

nails, etc. now set in. Some crossed the thousands of miles of dreary and desolate plains, others braved the deadly climate of the Panama route,

San José, in Santa Clara County, is the trade center of the beautiful and while still others made the long circumnavigation of Cape Horn. In highly cultivated valley of Santa Clara. It is the seat of the State Normal 1849, between the months of April and January, nearly forty thousand School and of the College of Notre Dame. emigrants arrived at the port of San Francisco.

Stockton, in San Joaquin County, on the San Joaquin River, has a large

agricultural trade with the surrounding country. It is the seat of the State California was soon ready to become a state. In September, Asylum for the Insane. 1849, a convention met at Monterey and framed a state consti

Alameda – contiguous to Oakland, is, like that the seacoast, is a favorite resort for invalids tution. Congress admitted California into the Union, Sept. 9, city, a famous place of residence for people and tourists, on account of its charming 1850.

doing business in San Francisco.


Berkeley – contiguous to Oakland on the north, San Bernardino - in San Bernardino County, in The history of California may be divided into two periods, - is the seat of the University of California the southern part of the state, is surrounded the period of “gold and experiment,” and the period of "wheat

and of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb by vineyards and orange groves. It is on and Blind.

the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad, and growth.”

Chico - in Butte County, has an important trade and has an extensive trade with Arizona. in farm products and lumber.

Santa Cruz - in Santa Cruz County, is a noted The first period began with the discovery of gold, and lasted till about Eureka – in Humboldt County, on Humboldt summer resort for sea-bathing. It has manu

1860. During this period the great object of the people was to Bay, in the redwood region, has the largest factures of paper, powder, lime, and leather. accumulate a fortune and return" home.” The second period began Fresno- in Fresno County, in the southern part

lumber trade in the state.

Santa Clara - in Santa Clara County, is sur

rounded by an extensive fruit-growing when the population ceased to be exclusively a mining population and

of the San Joaquin valley, is the trade region. It is the seat of the University of commenced to develop the agricultural resources of the state.

center of a large vine and fruit growing the Pacific and of the Santa Clara College. After some years it was found that the yearly returns derived from the

region made fertile by irrigation.

San Diego in San Diego County, on San Diego

Grass Valley - in Nevada County, is a mountain Bay, has one of the finest harbors of the export of wheat were fully equal to the value of the gold produced.

town in the midst of extensive quartz-mines. Pacific coast. It is connected by rail with With the period of “wheat and growth,” people began to think of mak- Modesto – in Stanislaus County, in the San Joa- the Southern Pacific Railroad at Colton. ing their homes on the Pacific coast. They found they had every in

quin valley, on the line of the Southern San Quentin - in Marin County, on the Bay of ducement to do so in its remarkable climate and its rich returns for

Pacific Railroad, is the trade center of a large San Francisco, is the site of the State Prison agricultural region.

of California. human industry.

Monterey – in Monterey County, on Monterey Santa Rosa – in Sonoma County, is the business The subsequent progress of California has been both rapid and health- Bay, is a fashionable summer resort.

center of the fertile Russian River valley. ful. The pioneers of California were, as a rule, young men of energy Marysville – in Yuba County, has an extensive San Rafael – in Marin County, on the shores of

mining and agricultural trade.

the Bay of San Francisco, is a favorite sumand brains. Many were finely educated. This has given a very bright Napa – in Napa County, on the Napa valley mer resort on account of its delightful sumand progressive character to California life and civilization.

branch of the California Pacific Railroad, mer climate.

commands the trade of the beautiful and St. Helena - in Napa valley, is surrounded by X. POLITICAL DIVISIONS.

fertile Napa valley. It is the site of a branch extensive vineyards, and has an extensive State Asylum for the Insane.

trade in wine. California is divided into fifty-three counties, and contains the Nevada City – in Nevada County, in the Sierra Truckee – in Nevada County, near the crest of

Nevada Mountains, is situated in a rich gold the Sierra, at an elevation of about 6,000 following leading cities and towns:

region, and has an extensive mining business. feet, has extensive saw-mills and lumber

Petaluma – in Sonoma County, on the San Fran- manufactories, run by the water-power of San Francisco (297,990) the largest city of the Pacific coast, cisco and North Pacific Railroad, and at the the Truckee River. It is in the vicinity of is a great commercial and manufacturing seaport. In foreign

head of navigation on Petaluma Creek, is an Donner Lake and Lake Tahoe. In winter

important shipping point for the farm prod. snow falls to a great depth. commerce it ranks as one of the chief cities in the United

ucts of Sonoma County,

Vallejo - in Solano County, on the Bay of San States. The foundation of its commercial greatness is its

- in Contra Costa County, on the Francisco, is the bay terminus of the Napa mag

Bay of San Francisco, 30 miles from the city Valley and the California Pacific railroads. nificent harbor, the finest on the whole coast.

of San Francisco, is the chief point for the Near the city, on Mare Island, is a United

ocean shipment of wheat. It contains im- States navy-yard, – the only one on the The city is situated on a low sandy peninsula lying between the Bay of mense warehouses for storing grain, and has Pacific coast. San Francisco and the Pacific Ocean. The bay is a beautiful sheet of the largest flour-mill in the state.

Visalia - in Tulare County, is the trade center of water 60 miles long and 10 miles wide. The entrance to this land- Placerville – in El Dorado County, is the termi- an extensive grain-growing region in the San locked harbor is through the Golden Gate, a narrow strait one mile

Port Costa

nus of the Sacramento and Placerville Rail- Joaquin valley.

road. It was formerly a famous mining town. Yreka - in Siskiyou County, is in the extreme wide.

Red Bluff – in Tehama County, at the head of northern part of the state. The manufactures consist of mining-machinery, iron-work, woolen goods,

light steamer navigation on the Sacramento, famous mining town, but is now the trade boots and shoes, leather, clothing, cigars, carriages, furniture, and

commands the trade of the upper Sacramento center of an agricultural and stock-raising valley

country. It is on the line of the California agricultural implements.

Santa Barbara - in Santa Barbara County, on and Oregon Railroad.

It was once a

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