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PUBLISHERS' ADVERTISEMENT.

632353 In presenting to the public this work on geography, the publishers and may be so taught if it be thought desirable. Again, by a differrespectfully invite the attention of Boards of Education, teachers, and ence in type and by the arrangement of the questions, each series preparents to the following statement of its plan and leading features : sents the choice of a simple outline or a fuller course.

The study of geography is now, much more than at any former pe The questions are so clearly related to the maps and the text as to riod, an essential element in education. It is second in importance avoid the serious difficulties which frequently arise from obscurity in only to reading, writing, and rudimentary arithmetic. The newspaper this connection. The cities and towns called for by the text are at is and must continue to be the chief source of that knowledge of cur once pointed out both by the prominence of the type and by a peculiar rent events which is indispensable to every intelligent person. Its device of color which will be found upon the maps. telegrams and other items and articles necessarily assume that the Among the many other original matters of great practical importance reader possesses a knowledge of certain geographical facts. It is the to pupils and teachers are the map showing the divisions and subdivisaim of this work to present and impress these facts.

ions of the United States, and the Industrial and Commercial Map of To this end the careful selection and arrangement of topics have the United States, exhibiting the leading industries and resources of the been regarded as matters of prime necessity in order to insure such a country, and its various existing and proposed systems of transportation unity of plan as to present a simple, yet practical, definite, and coher by railroad, coast lines, and interior water-ways, the whole for the first time ent view of the subject.

so simply and clearly presented as to be easily committed to memory. The geography of commerce has been made the leading line of The definitions are few and brief, and, like the rest of the work, are thought, because commerce, domestic and foreign, is becoming more expressed in the simplest language which the subject will allow. and more a dominant interest in the affairs of the leading nations of The map-drawing exercises and the tabular reviews are simple and the world, and because no other department of the general subject practical, and will commend themselves to teachers. presents in such bold relief their rivalries and mutual dependencies. The perfect clearness and legibility of the maps and the character It involves a systematic presentation of the resources and industries of the type used in the text prevent injury to the sight of the pupil of countries as dependent upon climate, soil, mineral deposits, and and teacher. other physical conditions. It also includes all important information In view of the limited time which can be given to geography in concerning cities and towns as commercial, manufacturing, and mining school, this treatise has been made as concise as possible, without limcentres, and an outline of the system of transportation, domestic and iting its comprehensiveness. This is not only very desirable in itself, international. The tables of reference show the total imports and but was made necessary by the large type and the great space given to exports of all the maritime nations, and particularly the commerce of the instructive pictorial illustrations. While great care has been taken each of these countries with the United States.

to reject all matter not strictly relevant, it is believed that no other The work is essentially in two distinct parts—a physical geography School Geography presents so many essential facts and principles in and a political geography. The physical geography is treated with so few words. sufficient fulness, and presents no difficulty greater than the de The character of the type and the quality of the illustrations, scription of a chain of mountains or of the course of a river. A maps, paper, and binding of this work leave it without a rival in systematic outline of this department will be found in the questions of the beauty and excellence of its mechanical execution. the general review. Each of the two parts has a series of special The work in all its details shows that the author is a practical teachmaps, exercises, and descriptions. Each series is complete in itself, er, to whom the difficulties of the class-room are thoroughly familiar.

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY.

Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1875, by Harper & BROTHERS, in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.

Copyright, 1885, by Harper & BROTHERS

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

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35

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XXXIX. DESCRIPTION OF POLITICAL UNITED STATES,

33

XL. GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, .

XLI. QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC

STATES, OR NEW ENGLAND,

37

XLII. REVIEW EXERCISES,

37

XLIII. DESCRIPTION OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC STATES, OR NEW

ENGLAND,

37

XLIV. QUESTIONS ON MAP OF THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES, 41

XLV. Review EXERCISES,

41

XLVI. DESCRIPTION OF THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES, . 41

XLVII. QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF THE SOUTH ATLANTIC AND

SOUTH CENTRAL STATES,

44

XLVIII. REVIEW EXERCISES,

44

XLIX. DESCRIPTION OF THE SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES, .

L. DESCRIPTION OF THE SOUTH CENTRAL STATES,

47

LI. QUESTIONS ON MAP OF THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES, 48

LII. Review EXERCISES,

48

LIII. DESCRIPTION OF THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES, .

50

LIV. QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF THE WEST CENTRAL STATES

AND STATES OF THE PLAINS: NORTHERN Divisions, 53

LV. REVIEW EXERCISES,

53

LVI. QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF THE WEST CENTRAL STATES

AND STATES OF THE PLAINS: SOUTHERN DIVISIONS, 54

LVII. REVIEW EXERCISES,

54

LVIII. DESCRIPTION OF THE WEST CENTRAL STATES,

53

LIX. DESCRIPTION OF THE STATES OF THE PLAINS,

56

LX. QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF THE WESTERN OR HIGHLAND

STATES,

59

LXI. REVIEW EXERCISES, .

59

LXII. DESCRIPTION OF THE WESTERN STATES: Rocky MOUNT-

AIN DIVISION,

LXIII. DESCRIPTION OF THE WESTERN STATES: BASIN Division, 61

LXIV. DESCRIPTION OF THE WESTERN STATES: Pacific Division, 62

LXV. INDUSTRIES OF THE UNITED STATES, .

64

LXVI. TRANSPORTATION, ·

64

LXVIa. THE OLD, OR LOCAL STANDARD, TIME,

129

LXV16. The RAILROAD OR HOUR-BELT SYSTEM, OR NEW STAND-

ARD TIME,

. 129

LXVII. QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF THE DOMINION OF CANADA, 68

LXVIII. REVIEW EXERCISES,

68

LXIX. DESCRIPTION OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND,

68

LXX. QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA,

AND THE WEST INDIES,

73

LXXI. REVIEW EXERCISES,

73

LXXII. DESCRIPTION OF MEXICO,

71

LXXIII. DESCRIPTION OF CENTRAL AMERICA,

71

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I.

THE EARTH : ITS SHAPE AND SIZE.

1. Geography is a descripiion of the surface of the earth, and of its countries and their inhabitants.

2. The shape of the earth is nearly that of a ball, globe, or sphere.

The earth does not appear to be shaped like a ball, but looks like a large plain, stretching out in every direction. The reason of this is that we see only a small part of it at one time.

Note.—To ensure correct conceptions on the part of the pupil, it is recommended that the lessons on Mathematical Geography be illustrated by means of a globe.

3. We know that the earth is shaped like a ball from the following facts:

First. Ships have sailed around it.
Second. When a ship sails away from the land, the

hull or body first disappears from sight, then the

sails, and last the tops of the masts. When a ship is coming in from sea, the tops of the

masts are seen first, then the sails, and lastly the hull or body. If the surface of the water were flat, the

hull would be seen as soon as the masts. In like manner, in travelling across broad plains we

see the tops of distant mountains long before their bases are visible.

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