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Man must certainly be liable to error, when, in the blaze of revelation, and after the progress philosophy has made in the world, he still cries out, with the disciple of Epicurus :

" We know not yet how our soul's produc'd, " Whether by body born, or else infus'd : it Whether in death, breath'd out into the air, " She doth confus'dly mix and perish there, V Or through vast shades and horrid silence go ** To visit brimstone caves and pools below." *

Your Observation must be quite different from the obsermtzom of the greatest men the saculty of physic ever produced : men who were, and are still, as great Ornaments to the literary world, as they are useful to mankind.

N/Ve observe, sir, within ourselves, a principle that is obeyed as a sovereign ; that now finds fault with what it before approved ; that covcts with paslion what it despises after enjoying -, that now rejoices and then mourns ; that reasons and judges. I consult my reason : and it informs me, that this principle, so noble, and, at the same time, so liable to such conflicting agitations, cannot be a particle of matter, round or square, red or blue ; a volatilized vapour disQ solvable into air ; a contexture of atoms interwoven or separated by a sportive brain.

* Creech'sv Lucretlus, Book r,

My My reason informs me, that a being, capable to take in hands the government of a vast empire,--t0 form projects, the success whereof depends on an infinity of different springs, whose motions and accords must be studied and combined,-is something more than a little subtilized mud.

I observe matter with all its mutations and refinements : and I perceive nothing but extension, divisibility, figure, and motion.

My reason tells me, that the combinations of the different particles of matter, let their velocity be ever so great, can never reveal the saered mysteries of saith,_the holy rules of equity,-the ideas of piety, order, 'and justice. ,

Moreover, reason informs us, that matter is indifferent to motion or rest, to this or that simation. When moved in any direction, the smallest particle of any body or mass of matter, must yield to the motion of the whole. On the other hand, in our temptations and struggles, amidst the solicitations 'of sense, and the cravings of appetite, we can say, with St. Paul, that we seel an interior conflict and two opposite Jaws in ourselves : " the law of the body war" ring against the, law of the mind, and at'ffi tempting to captivate us to the law of sin." Under the inconvenience of such struggles and conflicts, a part of ourselves still remains the directing principle, always asserting its rights, and constantly supporting its native title to dominion. '

conflicts,

Reconcile, if you can, to the laws of mechanism,-to the cohesion of atoms,_and to the motions of particles of matter,-the infinite capacity of the soul,--its strong desires after immortality,_its power to infer conclusions from principles, in mathematical demonstrations and

,. logical argumcnts,_its arbitrary and voluntary determinations,-this shifti'ng and changing;those strange and sudden returns, reflections, and transitions in thought, which, by experience, we find it in our power to make.

We all agree, that matter touches in cont'act, and that whatever moves, is put in motion by another. We know, on the other hand, that, in reasoning, argumentations, demonstrations, &e. wherein we infer one thing from another, and another thing from that inference, and a third from thence, and so on, there is an infinity of different modes of thought. If those different modes ofv thought be no more than the different states of the solidrfigured, divisible parts of matter, with respect to velocity and direction,

it is necessary that they should have been put'

into these different states, by the impulse of

some foreign mover.

R' If*

If this mover, which is the cause of motioilg be matter, it must be moved or acted on itself :_ for otherwise it could not produce a change of motion in other contiguous parts of matter. There must still be a mover prior to the sor

r'ner, and another prior to that, and so on to in- '

finity, in every act of reason and argumentatio'n. But a progreffion to infinity is discarded by all philosophers, both ancient and modern.

To spin out the subject' in metaphysical arguments, were loss of time. Suffice it to say, that we would contradict our reason, and belye our hearts, in supposing that the troubles, agitations, importunate remorses, we feel after the commiffiort of some horrid crime,-the secret reproaches of a guilty conscience, which made the Athenian parricide cry out, twenty years after having tnurd'ered his father, that the crows upbra'ided him with his death z-we would, I say, only belye our hearts, in supposing such interior' þuniffiments ,' which tread in the heels of guilt,

. to be no more _ than an affe'mblag'e of little atoms, with hooked.or rough' surfaces. In supposing that patience and resignation in our affiictions, from' an expectation of immortality and the' spiritu'al joys os future bliss', the distant reward of our trials, are the result of smooth atoms gliding through the brain; or that the lion'ers,' which haunt the guilty, proceed from

the' ihe same cause which, produces a pain in the head, back, or stomach. l

Further i vUnder the dispensation of a and powerful God, crimes must b'e punished, and virtue rewarded. What notion can we form of a God, who makes no distinction betweerif the wretch who strfangles' his father, in order to take posseffion of his estate, and the just man' who is disposed to prefer death to iniquity, fromss an apprehensionv of offending his Maker P''

Yet the world has seen the greatest smner's elated with prosperity,-arrayed with crimes, as' with a raiment' of 'glory,'+swimming* in ad ocean of pleasures, which the fountains of ezij tortior'i and injustice supply,-strangers to those miseries which, in this world, seem t'o be the inherit'ance of the righteous. _ How many ilIus-' trious, 'wlrosi: power and. credit' silerrce the authority of the laws, whilst the innocent vicltin'i is suspended on the tree, upon the depo-A' sition of a perj'urer, or from the corruption of a: judge? The world has' seen alHierod on the throne, after rriu'rder'ing the in'nocents',-z.and 33 John the Baptist beh'eaded, in" prison, fer' ex{ claiming against incest,-"a' Nero swaying* the: sceptr'e' of the World, after ripping open his'' mother's w0m'b3,-and 'a Paul' bound with: chains, for preaching justice, judgment; and" ehastity;

a Virtue?

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