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The subject will probably be deemed against those of the grand conful. Moreworthy of the attention which I have re- over, they can scarcely be thought simple quested, when it be considered how highly enough to imagine that prayers nietated injurious the abovementioned notion, (of from a political cabinet will have any the propriety of using at first the deepest effect in influencing the divine decrees; glalies which the eye will admit,) must fo that their sentiments of gratitude tobe, if general experience prove (and which wards their English friends, need not reI strongly suspect it will) that facts die ceive any violent shock from a consci. re&tly contrary to those upon which this ousness of the mischief they are doing us. advice is given, take place.

Heartily do I wish that the French had Yours, &c. no stronger arms to assail us with; for Myops. though I am not sure that our volunteers

will be able to out-fight them, I have no To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

doubt that we have plenty of those who SIR,

can out-pray them. Your's, &c. OBSERVE in a late number of your

DAVUS. I

Magazine, that a writer who, under the fignature of Edipus, has given a disgraceful

To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine. anecdote of Talleyrand, has also made a fideftroke at those of the French clergy: W THOUT entering into any dil who have in this country to resume their functions in their Mr. Robinson of Cambridge, I shall only

He calls them“ vipers, the fore. observe, that his Lectures on Nunconmost to sting, and emulous of each other formity, which I read many years ago, in their prayers for the Corsican despor's struck me as a most violent party perfuccess in invading and defolating Eng- formance, full of the credulity and maland !” I presume that the charge against lignity which never fail to accompany them of peculiar forwardness in this busi- bigotry, whatever be the side it takes. ness is not to be rigorously understood, and Among other calumnies, the credit given that no more is meant than that they act to the horrid charge against James 1. of in correspondence with the rest of their having caused his

eldeit son, Prince Hen. order. Now, not to urge that these priests ry, to be poisoned, particularly Mhocked may really (with the mass of their country- me, as I happened to be furnished with men) suppose that England is the aggressor absolute proof that it was totally groundin this war, and may regard their duty to

less, In the medical works of Sir Theotheir native land as paramount to grati- dore Mayerne is a minute narration of tude for another--not to insist upon this the disease of this prince, which was coufideration I would alk, how can a putrid fever of three weeks duation; clergy established and paid by a state, act and the treatment of which exhibits the otherwise in public concerns, than as the whole range of practice in such cases, as it ftate bids thein? Do they not everywhere then existed. The names of the other bless aud curse, preach and pray, accordmedical attendants are mentioned, the ing to the injunctions of that power which whole train of symptoms, and the

apmaintains them for its own support, just pearances on dissection, are accurately as it does every other species of ftanding stated, and not a Nadow of doubt can force ? Have we any instances, now-a

remain on the authenticity of the relation. days, of a priest or a prophei who, like

I mult, however, do Mr. Robinson and honest Balaam, hesitates to devote a pub. his brother Nonconformists the justice to lic foe to destruction till he has received a say, that they were not the only believers fpecial commission for it? If the French and propagators of this caluniny against emigrant clergy were justifiable in return. King James. In Dodíley's Collection of ing to their ports when the consular repub- Poems, (vol. iii.) is “An Epistle froin lic had been universally acknowledged as

Florence, by the Honourable [Horace one of the regular governments in Europe, Walpole,” which contains a sketch, by (which none, I believe, but a few bigots no means flattering, of the Englis kings. have disputed), it became a part of their That of James I. is highly faiirical, and duty to act with respect to the new go. ends with this linevernment as they would have done to the “ Poison's one son, and t'other sent to Spain.' old. They were formerly the adyocates But Mr. Cole might say of this writer, for passive obedience in subjects, and they " The dog was a whig ;” and, doubtless, must be so now they formerly denounced whig-lies may well be matched again judgments against all the enemies of the tory and jacobite lies. Your's, &c. grand monarque, and they must now do lo

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SIR,

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. one of those demonstrative instances of the

omnipotency of mental energy, who

, mit, for insertion in your respectable I occasionally stimulate the perseverance Miscellary, a communication with which of my pupils—that where determined I have recently been favoured by that effort and enthusiastic diligence are not well known scientific phenomenon, Mr. wanting, the blemishes of physical nature Johu Gough. The ingenious essay "On effectively disappear, “the blind themthe Caules of the Variety of the Human felves are penetrating; and the mute have Voices," communicated, fome years ago, tongues of fire !" by that gentlemai), to the Literary and The communication originated (as will Philosophical Society of Manchester, is of be apparent from the context) from the course well known to a numerous class circumstance Mr. Gough's attendance of scientific readers, to whom the Me- upon my Lecture, “ On the Education moirs of that once active and fourishing and Management of the Organs of Voice," institution heretofore presented a fund during the short course of Lectures of rational amusement. The theory of (eight in number) that I have recently unisons and fecondary vibrations by which delivered in the town of Kendal “On the that essay fo ingenioully accounts, first Science and Practice of Elocution ;” and for the different tones of different instru. the fuggestion of the writer is perfectly ments of the same nominal and appa- correct, that his remarks will tend to the rent fructure, and thence, by inference improvement of my theory. With that and analogy, for the diverfities of tone theory, however, those remarks are in so remarkable in different human voices, perfect consonance. In a previous Lecmust have carried its conviction to the mind iure “On the Structure, Physiology, and of every scientific musician and every Offices of the Organs of Speech," which reflecting observer of those characteristic Mr. Gough (the remoteness of whole varieties which that theory professes to residence interfered with the regularity explain. With the speculative theorems of his attendance) did not happen to of that essay the practical observations hear, the secondary vibrations of the of the ensuing letter are naturally and human voice through the whole of the intimately connected : and the judicious cavities and fibres of the head were observations it contains, receive additi- expressly traced ; the refpective characonal interest from the source whence teristic tones were specified, and demonthey are derived. Cut off, in his strated, in their connexion with the carliest infancy, from all intercourse respective orgars of promulgation and with the world of knowledge and obser modification, (the roof; tie noftrils

, the vation, through the 'customary inlet, the maxillaries, &c.) and the practical ay. organ of fight, Mr. Gough has been peal to the collateral evidence of the induced by the co-operation of this pri- lenfe of touch, by the application of vation with his ardent and insatiable the finger to the vibrating fibres of the thirit of science, to cultivate with ex- head, during the specific intonations, was treme diligence the supplementary faculties dictated for the confirmation of the fact. of hearing and of touch. The acute Beyond this essential member of the perfection to which the latter of these, animal frame, I confess, however, that has been improved and exparded, has my researches into the ramifications of been fufficiently demonstrated by the ex- the organ of voice had never been extent to which he has carried bis practical tended. The observations of my curie. researches into the minute Science of spondent expand the theory through a botany; and the exquisiteness of his per- ftill wider circuit; and the extension is ceptions in the other kind—the prompti: demonstratively just. The suggestion of tude with which he discovers the stature the expansion of sonorous power, and of the merest Atranger by the firit re- consequent diffusion of found, through a soundings of his voice (of which I have wider circuit, in proportion to the nummyself been witness), and the facility with ber (not loudness) of the vibrating upi. which he recognizes the presence, and fons, and of the application of the powers di criminates the identity of his acquaint- of volition to the bringing of the reípecance, by merely listening to their respec- tive vibratory fibres into the itate of tive breathings, equally illustrate the unison required, (which may be exunprecedented degree of improvement to tended to every description of enunciawhich he has expanded his hearing facul- tive effort, as well as to the theatrical ties: so that Mr. Gough is, in reality, whispering to which it is here applied) MONTHLY MAG. No. III,

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will, also, be found of most especial im- vibrations is produced ; and these impulses portance to all persons whose professional pervade the superior moiety of the speaker or public duties call for the emphatic with a power proportionate to their primitive exertions of the elocutionary powers. To force. The upper part of his body is then such perfons, therefore, I have no doubt converted into an automatic clarionet; the that the discovery will be highly accep- in part from the muscular strength of the

effect of wbich, in respect of distance, arises table; and I proceed accordingly, to the larynx ; and is derived partly from the quotation of Mr. Gough's letter.

magnitude of that portion of his body, which SIR,

vibrates in company with the primary or THE spirit of inquiry, and the valuable gans of voice.

observations which enriched your I have now compleated the outline o lecture on the education of the voice, en- my theory, by enumerating the physica courage me to offer a few facts and reflec- principles which act in conjunction, so as t tions to your consideration. The naked enlarge the power of the voice. Should th truth is simply this, I am vain enough to talk of comparing my opinion with fact imagine myself able to improve your theory appear worth pursuing, you may easily con of the power of the human voice; and as firm or refute the theory by making th the improvement demonftrates the propriety comparison : for my part, I shall take notic of the rules which you have given to facili- but of one incident of the kind; and this is tate the attainment of this accomplishment, the circumstance of powerful whispering I have ventured to trouble you with the which you mention in your lecture on th following thoughts on the subject.

education of the voice. Actors differ fro: The egress of the voice is generally fup. other men, as they use their endeavours o posed to be confined to the aperture of the casionally to make their whispers intelligib Jips ; but any person may convince himself, to the multitude. This effort is exacted t that this notion is ill founded, by a simple the nature of the profession, which requir experiment. Let him place the tip of his certain secrets of the drama to be comm finger upon his breast or the side of his fore. nicated to the audience apparently in il head when he is speaking, and the sense of language of secrecy. The person who wilh touch will inform him immediately, that to acquire this difficult attainment, wi the vibrations of the larynx are not restricted probably, find the accomplishment of to the compass of the windpipe, but extend enterprize facilitated by making a proj to the more distant parts of the head and use of the following facts. First, if a bo chest, which vibrate in conjunction with is forced to vibrate in consequence of the primary organs of voice. In fact the connexion with another already in a sta upper moiety of the speaker's body becomes of vibration, the greatest effect will be р an extensive field of sound, resembling a

duced when the two bodies are in unif drum, every member of which vibrates as Second, the vibratory faculty of the ch oft as a stroke is imparted to the parchment may be altered by varying thc pressure covering by the drumstick. Experience the muscles belonging to this part of thews, that a fixed quantity of percussive human frame ; in the same manner that force produces sounds, poflefling greater or vibratory faculty is changed in a drum less powers, according as this force is per- altering the action of the braces. It folle mitted to act upon greater or less portions from these properties of transmitted sou of vibrating surface. The notes of a cla. that the man will whisper with the grea rionet can fill a circle a mile in diameter; effect who can put his head and chest i but if the reed, or mouth-piece, be made unison with his larynx ; when it is i to sound, when disunited from the tube, state of extreme relaxation. it cannot be heard at the distance of one You very justly observe, that the scie hundred yards; though this instrument is yet in its infancy, which teaches the evidently produces vibrations in the latter of giving power to the voice by a judici instances, which are equal to those it pro- management of the vocal organs. Shi duced in the former.

the preceding attempt advance the infant Let us now substitute the larynx in place step towards maturity, the defign of the of the mouth-piece ; also, let the chest, rent letter will be answered.” together with the head, represent the trunk Middlesbar,

I am, &c. of the clarionet; and this easy transition, Nov.

3, 1803,

JOHN Gou from art to nature, explains the method To the observations of Mr. Goug! whereby the power of the voice is increased : the fonorous vibrations of the fibre: for it discovers the physical causes upon the chest, I have only to add, chat, which the secret depends. This method confifts chiefly in contracting the upper ex

the receipt of his letier, I have tried tremity of the windpipe, tu as to make the hypo:hulis, by the test which he muscles of the larynx reft strongly upon gests, both in private experiment the breath, during its escape from the lungs. during my public exertions ; that, i In this manner a quick succellion of powerful at least, those experiments have appe

no

fufficiently satisfactory; and that the sulted some of the most learned men in fact hus discovered appears to me an this country, before it was put to press, important addition to the means of prac. who gave it as a decided opinion, that tical inprovement in elocutionary science. no general rules can be laid down for the If I may be permitted to judge of the pronunciation of certain combinations fuccess of my own experiments, the appli- of letters in the names of places. Thus cation of the suggeition has added at least the fb, fch, ch, to which Mr. B. refers, one more to the manageable varieties and will in proper names have different powmodifications of vocal intonation. Indeed, ers according to the language of the counif the whole of my theory and that of try, to which the place belongs : in Mr. Gough be not fallacious, this Rochelle, for instance, the name of a town must eventually be the case : as nothing in France, the ch, must be pronounced as is more clear than that the improvement fi, and accerdingly in the Vocabulary of any faculty must neceffarily depend, alluded to, it is put “ Ro-chèlle (proin a very confiderabie degree, upon the nounced Ro-lelle).” To take another accurate comprehension of the inftrumen. initance or two from the same work, tality by which the funtions of that Brac-cià-no, and Ro-mag-na, provinces faculty are carried on; and as the human of Italy; if the ci, and the a, in the voice is not so ttrictly speaking a single former, and the g, in the latter were, or instrument, as a concert of many inttru- could be, reduced, 10 English pronounciaments, whose respective powers and cha- tion, or in other words, if a general rule racteristic tones are exceedingly different could be given, there would be no diffifrom each other; and as we have, evi. culty: but as that is impossible, those den:ly, the power, by the actions, com. words in Goldsmith's Grammar stand as pressions, tenfions, positions, and relaxa. follows, “ Brac-ci-à-no (pronounced Brations of the relpective voluntary mucles “ chi-ar-no): Ro-mag na (pronounced connected with each and all of these, to Ro-m'a-na):"",

Other instances direct (partially or intirely) the influen- less striking might be selected from the tial or secondary vibrations, that respond fame little work, but these are fufficient to the original impulses of the larynx, to show Mr. Barrett, that he is seeking through one, or other, or several, of all what is not possible to be found. If he of these, as occasion, or inclination re- refer to Goldsmith's Grammar, he will quire, he who best knows the respective also see that care has been taken not only portions of this automatic band from to divide the several words into syllables, which the different intonati ns are to be but also, to lay the accent on the proper elicited, will, necesarily, be beit enabled syllable, affording at once a sort of ilanda to command the correspondent tones, and to the scholar, and, in doubtful calts, which the several pallions, lentiments, to the preceptor also. and combinations of language may le. Mr. B. says that, as“

many respectable quire; and every discovery which extends persons associate all their geographical the just theory of vocal vibrations, ex- knowledge, with names which they have tends, accordingly, the practicable powers few oppreunities of hearing pronounced, of elocutionary exprellion.

and to subject themlelves to unmerited I am, Sir, your's, &c. ridicule, it cannot be doubted that allist

J. THELWALL. ance in this respect, if afforded with toLancaster, 15 Nov. 1803.

lerable accuracy, would be found particu

Jarly useful." To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine. Of this aliistance, I have, Sir, Mown, SIR,

the public is already in poffeffion. And I Was in some degree surprised at the beg le:ve to remark that the sole cause

enquiries made by Mr. Barrett, in of ihe other complaint, viz. thai geograp: 400 of your last number, because phical knowledge is almost always conwhat he is projeEting as a novelty, has fined to names, has originated from the been aiready before che public fince the llovenly way in which introductory works month of April last.

of Geography are usually written. In At the end of “ An Ealy Grammar some we meet with a mere collection of of Geography by the Rev. J. Goldfinith,” names, descriptions of boundaries, and will be found a vocabulary of proper other technical terms, which it is almost names of places divided and accented, in impossible for a pupil to commit to me: the way in which they are usually pro- mory, and, if learnt, convey to the mind nounced. The author of that work con- Do practical information : in others, there

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is not a fingle map, which must ever be manorum, fe&t. 23.) The original words
an effectual bar to the attainment of are, “ Potui humor ex hordeo aut fru-
geographical knowledge. The pupil mento, in quamdam fimilitudinem vini
may learn from his book that Portugal is corruptus. Proximi ripæ & vinum mor-
bounded in part by Spain, and in part cantur.".
by the Atlantic, or that the Pyrenees are The Anglo Saxons, as well as all the
the boundaries between France and Spain; northern tribes, were addicted to hard
but if he have no map before him to drinking, which accounts for the numer -
which he may refer, for the relative pofi- ous drinking-horns with which the ban.
tion which one country bears to another, quets, as they are exhibited in our earlieft
the memory will be wearied, but the un- inanuscripts, feem much better provided
derstanding cannot be informed.

than with plates and dishes. Among the How far these and other defects with ancient Germans, says Tacitus, it was which a multitude of what are called no disgrace to be fitting day and night, “Introductions orGuides to Geography," carousing and drinking. And fuch great are chargeable, have been remedied in drinkers were the Danes who were in the little book to which I have referred, England in the time of Edgar, that that the public will judge for themselves. Mr. monarch not only put down a great namBarrett will, in some respects, at least, ber of the alehouses which then existed, find in it, what he conceived were still but suffered one only to be open in each among the desiderata in this pleasing and of the villages and small towns, and or. highly useful Science.

dained that pegs or studs should be fattDec. 13. 1803.

I am, &c. ened in the drinking cups and horns at A CONSTAN'T READER. stated distances, and that whosoever fhould

drink beyond his mark should be obnoxi. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,

ous to a severe punishment.

The brewing veffel of those times was SIR,

called alfath, from æl, ale, and fet a vat : N compliance with the wish expressed and if we may credit the Laws of Athelfrom iny common-place book a few me. differently of iron, brass, or lead. The moranda in regard to Beer.

word vat, applied by our brewers at the BERE is an Anglo-Saxon word for present day, is, I believe, the only inttance barley, so that we have not far to go for where the Saxon word is still used. its etymology. Indeed they who are The Laws of Ina king of Wessex, in best skilled in the analogy that exists the year 728, mention both ale and aleamong the languages in the North of houses : though the first assize was not fixed Europe, find a singular coincidence in the till the famous statute of the fifty first of word before us, which is used with little Henry the 3d. variation for the same article, among Although the brewers of London were them all

. The Germans fay bier; the not incorporated as a company till the Danes bior.

time of Henry the 5th, 1438, they occur Tacitus, who knew the forefathers of as a fraternity among the Rolls of Parliaour ancestors among their native woods, ment considerably sooner, and are called has left us a curious picture of their man- the Bere-brewers. He says their food was of the

Froin the patents in the Record Office simpleft kind; such as wild apples, the at the Tower, it appears that in the first flesh of an animal recently killed, or coa- year of Edward the 4th the supervisorgulated milk. Without skill in cookery, ship of the bere-brewers throughout the and without seasoning, to ltimulate the kingdom was bestowed by the king on palate, they ate to fatisfy nature. But, John Devenishe and others; and that he tells us, they did not drink with the their fee was a half-penny of filver upon sole view of quenching thirst ; their love

In the sth of the same of liquor was indulged to particular ex. king this office was granted, for their lives, cels: they were careless indeed as to its to Richard Bele, Robert Oldum and John quantity, but not its quality. The Ro

Gyles. And in his iith year we have man author says " Their beverage is a patent appointing 'John Gyles, William a liquor drawn from barley, or from wheat, Gull, and John Nicholl, scrutatores et and, like the juice of the Grape, fer- Supervisores de lez Beerebrewers London." mented to a spirit: The fettlers on the That the expoıt trade existed soon after, banks of the Rhine provide themselves we have full proof, fince in 1492, Henry with wine.” (Tacitus de Moribus Ger. the 7th granted license to a Fleming to

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