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The vitality of Islam
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Abdel active Afghani Ahmadiya Algeria Allal al Fassi Arab Atatiirk Ataturk Ayatollah Khomeini Ayub Khan Azhar became become believed Bhutto British Cairo caliphs century challenge Christian Colonel Gaddafi constitution cultural Dutch East economic Egypt Egyptian especially established Europe faith French Gaddafi Gibb groups Hadith holy Hurgronje ijma ijtihad independence India Indonesia Iran Iraq Islamic world Islamists Jamaat jihad Koran leaders Libya London Mahdi Masjumi Maududi Mecca militant Islam military missionary modern Morocco mosque movement Muhammad Muslim Brotherhood Muslim Brothers Muslim countries Muslim world nationalist Natsir non-Muslim official organization orthodox Pakistan pan Islam party perhaps pilgrims political problem Prophet reformers reformist regime religion religious rethinking rulers Sadat Saudi Arabia scholars schools secular Sharia Shiah Shiah Islam social society spiritual struggle Sudan Sukarno Sunni Syria tarikas traditional Tunisia Turkey Turkish Turks ulema umma University Wahhabism West Western zakat