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accompanied Nadir Shah, on his Return from Hindoltan to Per-
R. GLADWIN, we see, with pleasure, continues his useful
Jabours, in opening to us the treasures of Eaftern literature, which, but for his great skill and happy industry, might ftill have continued locked up from our view, in the hidden recefles of their original languages.
Of the author of this history, the following account is given, by himself, in his preface: He was born in the land of Caihmeer, which he ftyles the Semblance of the Celestial Paradise, the Inheritance of our great Ancestor ;' and in a note we are informed, that the Cashmerians so style their country in all their public writings.
Our Eastern historian says, that at the time when Nadir Shah was carrying on his ravages in Hindoitan, he procured an introduction to that conqueror, in order to accompany him in his recurn to Persia; and this the author did with the view of accomplishing, with facility, a desire which he had long entertained, of performing a pilgrimage to Mecca. On his being presented to Nadir Shah, that modern Tamerlane not only promised him bis protection, but took him into his service; in which he held a post of some distinction.
On his return from bis travels to Hooghly, in Bengal, he was solicited by his friends to write the history of his travels, and also of the most interesting occurrences of his own time, respecting the affairs of Hindoitan, and the exploits of Nadir Shah; to many of which he had himself been an eye-witness; and this, says he, I have accordingly attempted, in a plain and unaffected style, free from Aattery and exaggeration, which too often ftain the historic page. I have also avoided prolixity, as well as studied cadences, and fowing periods, which only serve to perplex the sense.'
Khojeh Abdulkurreem writes, indeed, like an honeft intelligent man, with ftrict imparciality, and with every appearance of inat reverence for truth, which ought to be the governing principle of every hiftorian. Whatever were his obligations to Nadir Shah, he speaks of the general character and conduct of that tyrant in terms which plainly shew, that his pen was under no
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undue influence. • He was,' says our author, a brave an experienced soldier, poflefed of an acute, discriminating underftanding, with a&ivity, resolution, and forefight; he knew very well how to conquer, and to make himself obeyed; but he was totally ignorant of the true principles of government for the prosperity of a kingdom; and the impetuofity of his temper, bs cruelty and hardness of heart, made his name universally 25 horred and detefted.
The following short passage may serve as a specimen of or historian's turn of sentiment, and mode of expreffion:
Notwithstanding Nadir Shah was very illiterate and tyrannica', yet whenever he gained a victory, he attributed his good fortune to the power of heaven, and never failed to offer up public thank giving for it. And it is to this piety, that we must ascribe his great success. On the other hand, some of his officers vainly boated
, that these victories were solely the fruits of their valour, which piesumption drew on them the divine vengeance, and terminated i their destruction, in the manner following.
• After the conquest of the fort of Jieyook, Nadir Shah, by bez of drum, prohibited the soldiers from moiesting the inhabitanti The Kezlebalhes, regardless of these orders, and thinking to find this place full of money and jewels like Shahjehanabad, begao. plunder ; but after great search, could discover nothing but grair, and some furs. As soon as intelligence hereof was brought e Nadir Shah, he sent a party to seize the offenders, and bring the before him. All the officers amongst them, from the commander o a thousand to a Debashy t, he ordered to be beheaded in his presence and the private soldiers he dismissed with the loss of their ears and noses. The execution lasted til sunset, when he commanded the headless trunks, with their arms, to be carried to the main-guard, by which way every one passed, and there to lie exposed for two days as an example to others. I was present the whole time, and law the wonderful hand of God, which employs such inftruments for the execution of his divine vengeance. Although not one of the execetioners was satisfied with Nadir Shah, yet nobody dared to difoser his commands; a father beheaded his son, and a brother a brother and yet presumed not to complain.'
Khojeh Abdulkurreein fays little or nothing of the natural history of the countries through which he travelled, but be fre quently gives us brief descriptions of the principal places which occur in his itinerary; and often expresses himself with becoming concern, and humane feeling, when he bas occafion to notice the ruin of cities, and the depopulation of provinces, through they misgovernment of despotilm, and the ravages of barbarous io vacions.
On the whole, this production will be of considerable ule to future compilers of East Indian history; and, in the meas
* Dehli, which city they had, before, taken and plundered. † A commander of ten.
time, will afford confiderable information and amusement to its readers in general : though, it must be confeffed, that the strange uncouth names of persons, places, and matters of which we have little knowlege, may prove, in some measure, a drawback on their entertainment.
A Ř T. XXXII. A Narrative of the Tranfa&ions in Bengal, during the Soobahdaries
of Azeem us Shan-Jaffer Khan-Shuja Khan—Sirafraz Khanand Alyvirdi Khan. Translated from the original Persian, by Francis Gladwin, Esq. 8vo. pp. 211. 55. sewed. Calcutta printed; and sold in London by White. 1788. THIS Persian narrative may be considered as a companion to
the preceding memoirs, written by the learned Cathmeerian. Mr. Gladwin, in the dedication of this translation to George Vanfittart, Esq. obferves, that the name of the author of the original manuscript is unknown, but that he appears to be well acquainted with his subject, and that he affords us much curious information on the state of the government and of the tevenues of Bengal, during a very interesting period of Asiatic history. The narrative, which comes down to the death of Alyvirdi Khan in 1756, abounds, like all the Indian histories, with horrid details of battles, murders, acts of rapacity and treachery, and scenes of desolation : the natural effects of fanaticism, superstition, and despotic sway: from all which, the poor Hindoos of Bengal, &c. are now so happily freed by the salutary influence of a British government !
We are sorty that the author of the Perfian MS. of this narrative is unknown; as it abounds with many important facts, and interesting representations, with respect to the authenticity of which, it is natural for the reader to regret that the sanction of the relator's name and character is wanting.
ART. XXXIII. . PUNDNÁMEH. A Compendium of Ethics. Translated from the Persian
of Sheikh Sadi of 'Shirazi '8vo. pp. 59. Calcutta, from the Press of Stuart and Cooper. 1788. HE name of Sadi is sufficient to excite the reader's atten
tion to this little Persian manual of moral instruction; which greatly resembles the Proverbs of Solomon. It is divided under the following heads : Beneficence, Liberality, Parfimony, Humility, Arrogance, Knowlege, ignorance, Justice, Oppreffion, Contentment, Avarice, Obedience to God, Divine Worship, Gratitude to God, Patience, Truth, Falsehood, Fate and Destiny, Warning not to have any Reliance but upon God, Warning from evil Intentions and Actions, Reflections on the Instability of worldly
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Good. - The Chort chapter on Falsehood, may be given as ? fpecimen :
Whosoever exercises a lying tongue, the lamp of his heart thall not have light.
• Falsehood dishonoureth a man:
« The wise man Thunneth the liar, since nobody maketh any account of him.'
The Persian original, and the English translation, are printed in opposite pages. We suppose Mr. Gladwin to be the transla
"To the MONTHLY REVIEWERS. 'DR.
R. M'Causand finds, that in the Monthly Review for May, it is
observed, that the hypothesis which he has offered in respect to the phænomena of the Barometer, is not entirely new.
• He can only say, that at the time he wrote it, he had never met with even a hint on the subject, in the course of either his reading or conversation; and when it was shewn, in the spring of the year 1786, to a gentleman who had the first opportunities of being informed of every thing that was new in science, he assured the author that he had never before heard of such an hypothesis.
• As Dr. M'Causland is extremely desirous to see every thing that has been said on this subject from which he might receive information, he will think himself extremely obliged to the Monthly Reviewer, if he will communicate the title of the publication to which he alludes.'
In saying that Dr. M'Causland's hypothesis was not entirely new, we did not mean to infinuate that he had borrowed the hint from any preceding writer, for his work has intrinfic marks of originality, and ingenious inveltigation. We meant, that the phænomena had been referred, by some other philosophers, to causes of the same general tendency, viz. to chemical combinations and decompositions taking place in the atmosphere, by which the specific gravity, or actual quantity, of the atmospheric fluid, are, in different circumstances, increased or diminished. We alluded particularly to Pignotti's.Cor. getture Meteorologiche, published in 1781; and M. De Luc's hypothetis of the reciprocal transformation, in the atmosphere, of water and air into one another, in the second volume of his Idées sur la Meteorologie, published in 1787. An account of the former may be seen in the fixty-fifth volume of our Review, p. 305; and of the latter, ia vol.
Ch. * The author of the Sick LAUREAT* may rest assured, that, when we reviewed his Poem so entitled, we had not the smallest idea of
77. p. 116.
• See Review for April laft, p. 366.
afcribing to him the celebrated DIABOLIAD; nor do we apprehend that such a suspicion could poflibly arise in the mind of any discerning reader. Neither could we, for a moment, fuppose, that a writer of so much real merit could ever stoop to the littleness of “ praising himself * :" a meanness, of which he so strongly, and properly, expresses his contempt, in the letter which he has addressed to us from D
* Alluding to the compliments which he has paid to the author of the Diaboliad, in his poem above mentioned.
+++ Amicus, R. T. and S. W. are referred to the answer given to " A Young Reader," at the end of our last month's Review. We with neither to offend nor discourage well-disposed students; but as we must not suffer ourselves to be drawn out of our province, a stop must, if possible, be put to applications for advice, in matters appertaining to the business of education.
1*1 The verses on the King's illness, figned Thyrhis, should have been sent to a Magazine; the Reviewers can have nothing to say to manuscripts, and anonymous papers.
+• The Erratum, in p. 483 of our Review for June, marked in the last page of that number, was inserted by mistake; the correction having been attended to, after a few sheets only were printed off.
Errata in Vol. lxxx.
P. 63. 1. penult. dele the word ' agreeably.'
280. Note, l. 1. formanire,' r. manière.