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ineffe ftual applications, he was conveyed to the Cape, and cocamitted to the medical care of M. Planté. This gentleman, perceiving a large, but soft and yielding, tumour surrounded by leve, ral others in the parts affected, imagined that the bones might be carious. On examination, he found this to be the fad, and that the coronal, parietal, and temporal futures were the seats of this cariotity. After an exfoliation had taken place, the dura mater was laid bare, and a motion in it was very perceivable for several days. The pieces of bone which separated at different times, amounted to nineteen. After the space of seventeen months, the wounds began to cicatrize, and were perfe&ly closed, March 24, 1;81. No other inconvenience was felt than a fanous discharge and deafness in the left ear, owing to the loss of two of the small

1 bones, and shooting pains on the change of weather.

Mem. IV. Two anatomical Diffections which indicated Phanomens ! different from those which were apprehended from the Appearan.e of the Disease. By M. HALLE. 1. Schirr hous induration of the membranes of the stomach. Every thing seemed to indicate, in this te. male patient, that the liver was principally injured, and that a large suppuration would be found internally. 'Yet the fton.ch was the only viscus that was morbidly affected. It was become thick, and of the hardness of a cartilage, in almost every part. Bus it ftill retained its colour: no marks of ulceration of of inflammation appeared, nor was the evil extended to the adjacent parts. 2. Singular degenerate state of the two kidneys. A woman was seized, about two years after she had been troubled with a painful inflation of the abdomen, with a malignant fever, of which she died in the space of fifteen days. In every stage of the disease, the urine continued clear and abundant. Yer the contexture of each kidney was totally destroyed. The one contained a large quantity of serous matter, and four calculæ ; of which the largest filled up the pelorus: the other kidney was 16. duced to a small membranous fac which inclored a stone about the size of a pea, and some remains of the mamillæ in a deformed ftate, in which the two substances that constitute the kidney were no longer to be distinguished. This curious narrative is accompanied with an engraving representing the parts in their morbid late.

Mem. VIII. Obfervations on an Aneurism of the Arch of the Aorta, attended with an Erosion of the upper Rib, and of the Sternuni. By M. SCARPA, Profeffor of Anatomy at Pifa. M. SCARPA juftly attributes the erosion of the internal membrane of the artery and of these bones, to the continued friction of the blood againft parts which were no longer pofleffed of smooth and polished surfaces, and not to an acrimony of the humours, as some have imagined. He also ascribes the enlargement of the heart, common in this species of aneurism, to the preternatural diftention

and

and position of the arch. This article will doubtless call to the - minds of many of our medical readers, the very extraordinary

case of the late Dr. William Cooper, where the effects of the continual pulsation of the aneurismal facculum were much more astonishing.

Mem. XI. Esai sur le Storbut, &c. i. e. Essay on the Scurvy, in which the Nature of antifcorbutic Remedies is investigated, and also their Use and Combinations in the different Species, Complications, and Degrees of the Disorder. By M. GogueLIN, Correspondent of Moicontour, in Britanny.

M. G concludes, from his observations and experience, that vegetables in general, their fruits, juices, infusions, &c. are, properly speaking, antiscorbutics.

• All recent vegetables (says he), in general, are equally suc. cessful in curing the scurvy. All have therefore something in common that produces the desired effect. Now they have this in common; they all ferment, more or less, and that readily, and for å considerable space of time: and all of them lose their antiscorbutic virtue, according to the progress of the fermentation. What confequences may we draw hence! The two following: ift, That this 'common substance so surprisingly efficacious, is that mucilaginous substance which all freh vegetables contain in a larger or smaller quantity, united with those particular principles that cause a diverfity in taite, as sweet, bitter, four, or are productive of other medicinal effects, as evacuants, alterants, &c. 2dly, That as this mucous substance is the natural aliment of fermentation, this process is the best chemical mechod that can be employed, of discovering where it may be found, though at the same time its property is hereby defroyed.'

This mucilaginous substance is only serviceable, when it is eaten and digested in the stomach of the patient. Hence it fol. lows that fuch vegetables, or their productions, that have gone through a fermentation, are no longer remarkably antiscorbutic: but honey and sugar contain and preserve this mucilage unaltered. M.Goguelin proceeds, in the second part of this ingenious efsay, to examine if there be different species of the scurvy, conftituting effential distinctions; and adopts the opinion of Lind and Haën, that the disease is every where essentially the same, and of a putrid nature. He then enquires into the causes, which impede the natural progress of the disease, the disorders that most frequently accompany it, and indicates the methods of treatment ; fubjoining several formula of which he has found the most efficacious. His obfervations were made during a long course of sea voyages. As fugar contains the only principle which is really anusccrbutic in fresh vegetables, he recommends the free use of it on board of thips, as contticuting a part of the provisions. He thinks that about two ounces per day might be given to each man with singular advantage.

CHIRUR

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CHIRURGICAL. Mem. II. Obfervations on fingular Contractions in the Redaz. By M. ANCELIN. Two instances of this kind are given. In first case, on opening the body, the intestines were found com fiderably enlarged; the colon was prodigiously distended, 23 billed with fæces through its whole extent. At its junction : the re&tum, there was a circular cartilaginous conftri&tion: that a common quill could scarcely be admitted. The freight about four lines in length; the colon above the ftri&ore, and sectum beneath it, gradually enlarging in the manner of a doe: funnel. In the fecond case, at the place of a similar frider the root of a tooth was found, which the patient had swallow a few days before he was taken ill; and which was obftruer from pafing, by the adhesion of the point at the place of the Aridure. M. ANCELIN has invented an instrument to remedy Evil; but to have a juft idea of it, recourse muft be bad to the plate annexed.

This learned and useful Society distributed at their laft allenbly, March 3d, 1788, the rewards proposed to the moft fatisfactory answers to the following question: What diseases para ved from the evaporation of Ragnant waters, and in marshy ground, affecting either the inhabitants of the parts adjacent, or those who are employed to drain them; and by what method can these diseases be prevented or cured?"

The first medal was adjudged to Dr. BICKER, of Retterdam: the second to M. Ramel, M. D. of Aubigny in Pro vence; and the third to Dr. BAUMES, of Nimes. All of them are members of several learned societies, and gentlemen well known in the literary world. M. Bicker has chiefly enJarged on the preservatives, and he describes, with great accuracy, an epidemic disease which prevailed among the inhabitants of the moraffes in Holland. But he has omitted to speak of the chronic disorders, of which these emanations are produane M. Ramel has communicated a great number of very interetting observations which he had made in Africa, on the fatal influence of Itagnant waters. But, in exploring the causes of the diseases produced, he seems to ascribe too much to the fimple bumidity occasioned in the atmosphere, without attention to its being charged with putrid miasmata. M. Baumes gives a general biltory of the diseases occasioned by the evaporation of stagnant water, not only in France, but in other countries where the subject has engaged attention: bis memoir is less enriched with medical observations, than either of the others.

* The premium is a medal of gold in value two hendred livres,

ART.

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ART. XXX.
The History of Hindofan, during the Reigns of Jehángir, Shah

Jehán, and Aurungzebe. By Francis Gladwin, Esq. 4to.
Vol. I. pp. 132. Calcutta. 1788.
N our last Appendix, we gave an account of the great Orien-

tal work lately translated by Mr. Gladwin, entitled the Ayeen Akbery; to which the present history, compiled by the fame ingenious hand, may be considered as, in some measure, supplementary; as it carries on the historical detail of the most material changes that happened in the conftitution of Hindoftan, through the reigns of the three next successors to Akber. Of these emperors, above named, notice has already been taken in our Reviews *, and, consequently, our readers are not wholly unacquainted with their characters; but, in the work now before us, the most considerable events of their reigns are given in regular arrangement. This volume is just come to our hands, through the favour of a friend; but, we believe, no copies of it are yet imported for sale. We have not had time allowed us for a particular account of the present volume; but we propose to give some extracts from it at a future opportunity; to which we look forward with the greater satisfaction, as we understand the second volume will speedily make its appearance.

Meanwhile, it is with pleasure that we observe the progress which Mr. Gladwin is making in his cultivation of Oriental literature. The labours of men so eminently qualified, cannot but prove highly advantageous to the interest of learning in general; and must add greatly to our knowlege of the Eastern

world, with which this nation is now so intimately connected, ....'

but of which we have, till very lately, been most astonishingly ignorant. We shall, now, cease to confound, as many of us bave done, the followers of the Bedas t, and those of the Mohammedan faith; whole opposite characters are thus well contrafted in the preface to the volume now before us :- The one, mild and forgiving, refusing proselytes, but profefling an universal philanthropy : the other, fierce and vindictive, making converts with the sword; despising and persecuting all who embrace not their particular creed ; pursuing, with unrelenting

fury, even those among themselves who differ but in the most qua immaterial point, regarding them as absolute infidels, the objects

of their scorn and utter detestation.'-But are the Turks, alone, chargeable with this extreme of bigotry?

* Consult our General Index, vol. ji.
of The divine Books, or Laws, of the Bramins.
App, Rev. YOL, LXXX.

Z z

Mr, G. The Eng

Mr. G. informs his readers, that the materials for this work are taken from authentic Persian manuscripts; of which he has an ample collection, purchased, as he assures us, at a very great expence, during twenty years residence in India. lith reader,' he adds, ''may rely on the fidelity of this compilation; and, for the satisfacton of the Orientalist, wherever ! have met with any law, or regulation, particularly important

, curious, or interesting, I have given the original along wit the translation, in an Appendix, at the end of each reign. --TE: reign of Aurungzebe furnishes many important documents ; &, under the government of that monarch, the conftitution of Hipdoftan was publicly declared to be founded on the strideft pris. ciples of Mohammedanism. In these ediets, the landed property, and other rights of the subject, are clearly stated; many poins relative to the prerogative of the crown, are accurately defined; and the officers of government are fully instructed in the natur: and extent of their respective duties.

The present volume contains the reign of JEHA'NG R; Qi whose death the following remarkable circumstance is related He was excessively fond of bathing; and, one day, having dire! in a moat, and remained so long under water that he became senseless, one of his servants, in order to save his live, dragon him out by the hair of his head. When he came to himie' inftead of properly rewarding such faithful and very seasonabe service, he was so enraged at the indignity of being dragged by the hair, that he ordered the man's hands to be cut off: in consequence of which, when a similar accident befel him again, th

: attendants suffered his mest sacred Majesty to remain unde water till he was actually dead. This happened A. D. 1510 The pride, or superftition, or both, of this Indian Emperor, reminds us of a similar proof of royal gratitude in one of it: Kings of Spain. The Queen was in imminent danger by a fa. from her horse, and her foot being entangled in the stirrup, or of the attendants flew to her relief; which he happily effected and was rewarded by a sentence of death, for having profane dared to touch her Majefty's royal foot.

To the volume (which, for the present, we relu&antly clole) is added, a vocabulary of the Arabic, Persian, and Hinder! words; which will be very acceptable to the Oriental reader.

G.

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