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whatever Mofes has related of their miraculous deliverance and prefervation.

The Mofaical laws and inflitutions form the fubject of the two next differtations; in which the influence of the theocracy on the national character is admirably delineated: the law, by which every male was obliged to appear at Jerufalem on the three great annual feftivals, contributed greatly to cherish and increase this effect. There were feafons of general joy and feftivity. The Jews, fays the author, affembled during feven days, not to hear maffes and fermons, but to rejoice together in the privilege which they enjoyed of being the peculiar people of God. Their feftivals were celebrated with public repafts, with i mufic and dancing; and thus combined the allurements of pleafure, with the fentiments of religion. As inftances of the influence of these affemblies on the minds of the Jews, M. HER DER mentions the 84th, 95th, and 122d Palms; in which he thinks it abfurd to imagine that myftical and prophetic meaning, which fome divines have pretended to discover in them.

I

In the fixth, feventh, and eighth differtations, the writer endeavours to explain the prophetic bleffings, which Jacob pronounced on the patriarchs defcended from him; and enters on a further examination of the poetical paffages in the hiftorical books of the Old Teftament. Among other fubjects, the friendship between David and Jonathan particularly engages his attention. The character of the latter is let in the most amiable and affecting light, and his generofity and greatness of mind, in refigning his pretenfions to the crown in favour of his friend, are celebrated in the warmest terms of praise.

But (adds he) when Jonathan died, and left the throne to David, what return did he make for all this difinterested friendship? -An elegy on his grave! An elegy, in which, however beautiful it may be, Saul and Jonathan are equally commemorated, as if they had an equal claim on his heart. I know that this elegy was written for the people; but I wish it had been intended folely for Jonathan and for David, and not for Saul and for the people.'

The Pfalms, and their writers, are the fubject of the three following differtations. M. HERDER obferves, that David con tributed greatly to improve and refine the poetry of the ancient Hebrews, not only by his own writings, but also by encourage. ment as well as the example which he gave to others; but, in proportion as it became refined, it loft much of that native vigour, that animated eloquence, and bold imagery, which are the cha racters of a lefs polifhed age. M. HERDER by no means ap proves of the indifcriminate manner in which the Pfalms are generally read and fung in Chriftian congregations. No book of fcripture, he fays, except Solomon's Song, has been fo much perverted from its original meaning and defign, as this, which

muft,

muft, in a great meafure, be afcribed to its being introduced into the church as an univerfal hymn-book for the use of persons whofe fentiments, ideas, and circumftances, have not the leaft coincidence with thofe of the royal poet: a whole congregation unites in finging all the pfalms of David without diftinction, as if every member of it had wandered with this king among the mountains of Judea, and been perfecuted by Saul: they utter imprecations against Doeg and Ahithophel, and curfe the Edomites and Moabites; nay, what is worse, they put these curfes into the mouth of him who, when he was reviled, reviled not again, who, when he suffered, threatened not. Instead of endeavouring to vindicate thefe imprecations, as many divines have attempted to do, M. HERDER juftly obferves, that they ought to be confidered as defects in David's perfonal character, for which, however, his peculiar circumftances plead fome excufe; we ought to confider his particular feelings, as an injured man, and as a foldier, as a fugitive, and as a king. With all the good, he had alfo many of the bad, qualities, ufually accompanying a warm temper; his paffions were ftrong, and his resentments were violent; befide, it fhould be remembered that he often fpeaks, not fo much in his own name, as in that of his people; not in his perfonal, fo much as in his national and political, character.

In his furvey of David as the Pfalmift, M. HERDER judiciously reminds the reader of his peculiar character and dignity, as the Viceroy of Jehovah, the God of his nation. These circumftances give a fpiritual and religious turn to his expreffions, even when he speaks of fecular fubjects. He fat as the anointed of the Lord on his holy hill of Zion; in adminiftering juftice and judgment, he was the prieft of God; in maintaining the national laws, he was the fervant of the Moft High; and, in common with the meaneft Ifraelite, was the fubject of the King of Kings. Thefe peculiar relations to the Deity, and the confcioufnels that his kingdom was under the direction of a particular providence, rendered it perfectly proper and natural for him to use expreffions, which, in a perfon differently circumftanced, would look like the affected boastings of enthusiasm. The moral pfalms of Afaph are, in our author's opinion, preferable to thofe of David; for as his affections were lefs ardent, he is much more difpaffionate and philofophical. In fhort, M. HERDER confiders the Pfalms as national poems, defigned to exprefs the particular relation in which both the people and their monarch food to Jehovah, as the peculiar God of Ifrael; and be does not admit of thofe prophetic allufions to the Meffiah which, many think, lie concealed in the paffages, but which, in a primary fenfe, related to David. The fecond Pfalm, for inftance, he afferts, refers entirely to David, who, as King of APP. REV. VOL, LXXX. U u

Ifrael,

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Ifrael, is faid to be anointed by God, as his fon or viceroy, his holy hill of Zion. This paffage is indeed quoted in New Teftament, but it is applied to Chrift by the apo exactly in the fame fenfe with that in which David wrote: concerning himself; and, to speak of Kings as the fons of Ga was a common figure in Eaftern poetry.

In the twelfth and laft differtation, M. HERDER accounts the frequent references to David and Solomon, in the writing of the prophets. The defection of the ten tribes in the reign. Rehoboam, and the fubfequent circumftances of the kingder of Judah, feemed not to correfpond with the divine predidi and promifes in favour of the family of David. Yet to the promifes, the prophets, whom God raifed up, naturally loo for confolation amid the diftreffes of their country; and a the state of this family was not then fuch as juftified hope that these predictions would be foon fulfilled; their inplicit confidence in the unchangeable word of God, togethe with the immediate revelations with which they were favoure directed their views to a future branch of this illuftrious fec. to which they applied the promises that had been made to Dari by the Deity. In predicting the happiness of the Meffiat kingdom, it was natural for the prophets to make freque allufions to the reigns of David and Solomon, because these we the only kings, under whom the Jews had enjoyed any thi like national grandeur and profperity, which, they thought, w referved for them.

The ingenious author has promifed another volume on th interesting fubject. Sow.

ART. XXI.

Nouveaux Mémoires de l'Academie Royale, &c. i. e. New Memoirs: the Royal Academy of Sciences and Belles Lettres of Berlin, f the Year 1785. 4to. 509 Pages. Berlin. 1787.

HISTORY OF THE ACADEMY.

HIS part of the work begins with extracts of letters from feveral aftronomers to M. BERNOULLI, containing obfer vations on the tranfit of Mercury, May 3d, 1786*; of HER CHEL'S planet, and of eclipfes of Jupiter's fatellites; with view to afcertain the mean motion of these planets. As the articles are not fufceptible of abridgment, we shall refer t reader to the Memoirs at large.

In medicine, we find an analyfis of a memoir, concerning the Hydrops uteri et Ovarii, prefented to the Academy by M. Jac

*For Mr. Edward Pigot's obfervations, which are here giver, fee Review, vol. lxxvi. p. 119.

QUINELLI,

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Under the article of Jurifprudence, are fome remarks, by M. ANIERES, on the prize problem propofed by Count Windifchgrätz; for the terms and conditions of which, fee Review, vol. Ixxviii. p. 494. These remarks tend to fhew the improbability : of a fatisfactory folution of the problem, and to vindicate the Academy in declining the Count's propofal of adjudging the prize.

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QUINELLE, Surgeon-major of the regiment of Agenois, at Weiffemburg, in Alface. From the account here given, this memoir does not appear to contain any new obfervations; but the author is praised for his diligence in collecting, from ancient and modern writers, fuch information as may explain and illuftrate the nature of thefe dreadful maladies.

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Under the title of Hiftory, Profeffor WEGUELIN gives an account of a Hiftory of France, undertaken by the Abbé SouLAVIE, of which nine volumes were prefented to the Academy; eight of thefe contain the natural hiftory, and the ninth, an introduction to the political hiftory, of this monarchy; in which the Abbé propofes to begin with the ter periods, and thence to proceed, in a retrograde order, up to the earliest times. We confefs we fee not the advantage of this crablike progrefs in hiftory; which, to mention no other inconveniences refulting from it, muft, we think, occafion an anticlimax in the importance of the fubject. The Abbé pleads the example of Mr. Hume, who began his Hiftory of England with the acceffion of the house of Stuart; but Hume tells us, in his life, that this was owing to his being "frightened with the notion of continuing a narrative through a period of feven hundred years." M. SOULAVIE intends to divide his History into five periods, which will be determined, not fo much by the different races of kings, as by the gradations made in civilization and manners.

The laft article of this part of the work relates to a difpute, referred to the decifion of the Academy, between M. NICOLAI, and the Abbé De L'E'PÉE, celebrated for his mode of inftru&ting the deaf and dumb, which, it feems, had been rather undervalued by the former. We cannot fupprefs our admiration of the Abbé's laborious undertaking, and the fuccefs with which it is crowned. We are here informed that he begins his inftructions, not by endeavouring to form the organs of speech to articulate founds, but by communicating ideas to the mind by means of figns and characters to effect this, he writes the names of things, and, by a regular fyftem of figns, establishes a connection between these words, and the ideas to be excited by them. After he has thus furnished his pupils with ideas, and a medium of communication, he teaches them to articulate and pronounce, and renders them not only grammarians, but logicians. In this manner, he has enabled one of his pupils to deliver a Latin oraU u 2

tion

tion in public, and another to defend a thefis against the ob tions of one of his fellow-pupils in a fcholaftic difputation; which the arguments of each were communicated to the otts but whether by figns, or in writing, is not faid; for it does: appear that the Abbé teaches his pupils to difcern what is spoke by obferving the motion of the organs of speech, which th inftructed by Meffrs. Braidwoods are able to do with aftonish readiness.

There is, perhaps, no word, fays the Abbé, more difficult explain by figns, than the verb croire, to believe. To do th he writes the verb with its fignifications, in the follow

manner:

oui l'efprit, pense que oui.

Je crois

Je dis out par le coeur, J'aime à penser que oui.
Je dis oui par la bouche.
Je ne vois pas des yeux.

B

After teaching these four fignifications, which he does by zi many figns, he connects them with the verb, and adds oth figns to exprefs the number, perfon, tenfe, and mood, in whic it is ufed. If to the four figns, correfponding with the lin above mentioned, be added that of a fubftantive, the pupil w write the word foi, faith; but, if a fign, indicating a partic ufed fubftantively, be adjoined, he will exprefs la croyance, be lief; to make him write croyable, credible, the four figns of t verb must be accompanied with one, that indicates an adject terminating in able; all thefe figns are rapidly made, and imme diately comprehended.

M. LINGUET having afferted that perfons, thus inftrude could be confidered as little more than automata, the Abbé ini vited him to be prefent at his leffons, and expreffed his aftoni ment that M. LINGUET fhould be fo prejudiced in favour of the medium, by which he had received the firft rudiments of knowJege, as to conclude that they could not be imparted by any other: defiring him, at the fame time, to reflect that the connexion be tween ideas and the articulate founds, by which they are excited in the mind, is not lefs arbitrary, than that between thefe idea and the written characters, which are made to represent them to the eye. M. LINGUET complied with the invitation; and, the Abbé having defired him to fix on fome abstract term, which be would, by figns, communicate to his pupils, he chofe the word unintelligibility, which, to his aftonishment, was almoft inflantly written by one of them. The Abbé informed him that, to communicate this word, he had ufed five figns, which, though fcarcely perceivable to him, were immediately and diftinctly apprehended by his fcholars: the firft of thefe figns indicated an internal action; the fecond reprefented the act of a mind that reads internally, or, in other words, comprehends what is propofed

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