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the inkstand, but closes them again directly, and afterward dips his pen in it with the utmost exactness : when it has been removed without his knowlege, he continued to carry his hand and pen very rapidly to the place where it bad stood, till he came to the level of its height, when not finding it, he complained of the deception; and, opening his eyes, perceived the inkstand, and replaced it where it had ftood at forft.

From there, and several phenomena of the like kind, the commiffioners infer that, in this patient, the office of the senses is not, during sleep, suspended with respect to such perceptions as relate to the objects, concerning which his imagination is intensely employed. In order to discern objects, and to determine those accidents of relative locality, wbich memory could not fuggeft, he is sometimes obliged to open his eyes; but the impression thus received, however rapidly made, is so lively, that it needs not to be repeated; for the idea is thus as distinctly represented to his imagination, as if he continued to behold the object that excited it. Thus all his senses seem to be subordinate to his imagination; to be, as it were, concentred in the object, concerning which it is employed, and to admit of no perceptions, except such as have some relation to it.

The commiffioners express their disbelief and contempt of the pretences, made by some, to produce somnambulation by animal magnetism; concerning which, their sentiments agree with those of the commissioners of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Paris, to whose report they refer their readers. Sow.

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ART. XVI.
Car. Lud. L'He'ritier, Dom. De BRUTELLE, Cornus. Specimen

Botanicum, &c. i.l. A Botanical Effay on the Genus Cornus, cona
taining Descriptions and Figures of such Species of it as are little
known. By CHARLES Lewis L'HE'RITIER, Baron de Brų.
TELLE, &c. Royal Polio. pp. 15. o Plates. Paris. 1788.

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by monographical descriptions. Linné, well knowing their consequence, bas admitted many of them into his valuable col. lection, intitled Amænitates Academice; and in several parts of his writings, he points out the advantages which are to be de. rived from them,

The genus, which is the subject of this essay, has been long known to botanifts and gardeners; but an elaborate description of it has not hitherto been given to the public; and it is on this account that the author, as he says in the introduction, has undertaken to illustrate it. He does not attempt a complete history of the genus; and as the European fpecies are well known, and have been accurately described by other writers,

he is the more diffuse on those species that have lately been found in America.

The species are, ist, Suecica; 2d, Canadenfis; 3d, Florida; 4th, Mafcula ; sth, Sanguinea ; 6th, Sericea; 7th, Alba; 816, Circinata; gth, Stricta; ioth, Paniculata; 11th, Alternifolia.

The specific characters, synonyms, place of growth, and duration, are assigned to each; and very minute descriptions, with elegant engraved figures, are given to the 2d, 6:h, 8th, gih, joth, and uith species. Observations and remarks are allo added, lhewing the reasons for diftinguishing the species, and pointing out fome mistakes of former writers.

With respect to the uses of this genus, the author refers bis readers to other books for more particular informacion than that which he has given. He recommends a decoction of the corrus florida, as endowed with a febrifuge quality, not inferior to that of the chincona officinalis. The wood, he also says, is used by fome modern Indians for arrows, as it was, formerly, in Italy:

Volat Itala cornus
Aëra per tenuem.

Virg. Æn, ix. 698. ]

A

ART. XVII. Car. Luv. L'HE'RITIER, Dom. de Brutelle, &c. Sertum Anglican,

&c. 1.6. An English Garland, or Descriptions of such rare Plaos as are cultivated in the Gardens near London, especially those in the Royal Gardens at Kew. By CHARLES Lewis L'HE'RITIER, Baron De BRYTELLE, &c. Royal Folio. Paris, 1788.

LTHOUGH we have received only a few (heets of ebis

work, we are induced to make an carly mention of it, because the circumstances of its publication reflect much honour on the French nation in general, and on the cultivators of botany in particular. A learned foreigner, to whom fame had | reported the fourishing state of gardens in England, came to visit them, and contemplate the rarities with which he had heard they were filled. With the unwearied labour of fifteen months, he procured drawings of the most valuable and lealt known plants, not, says he, without much admiring the gardens; which, both on account of the vast quantity of plants that they contain, and the industry with which they are cultivated, juftly deserve the praise bestowed on them.

The work is dedicated to the English nation, with the following compliment, which we give in the author's own words as a specimen of his manner of writing:

Genti autem Anglicæ hoc plantarum suarum fortilegium fpeciatim offero et dedico. In illos enim laus debet redundare e quibus profeliü eft. Suadet etiam gratissima animi recordatio qua semper infra beneficium erit. Juvat enim prædicare, et meminife amo, quam

1

omnes me comiter exceperint ; quam viri doctissimi in explicanda divitiarum ubertate, se præbuerint faciles et commodos ; quam fludios prasertim homines artis botanica oficiosam mibi operam navaverint. Accipiant igitur Angli botanici, üique soli, nova quæ in hoc opuscula defcripfi genera, non ingratium, ut spero, nec ignotum munusculum. Velint meo labori arridere; mihique liceat, ut boc opus illorum nomine infignitum, et vere splendidum teftetur gratum animum æternumque memorem.

The sheets which have been communicated to us, consist of thirty-fix pages; thirty-two of wbich contain the names, specific differences, synonyms, &c. of the plants which are afterward to be described; and the other four, minute descriptions of the first two plants on the lift, with owo plates. The plants Witheringia folanacea, and chloranthus inconspicuus, are two new genera of the class tetrandria monogynia. "The first is a native of South America, and is named after Dr. Withering, of Birmingham, whole successful Jabours in the science are well known. It Aowered firft in Lord Petre's garden, and is now cultivated at Kew. The chloranthus, so called from the green colour of its Aowers, was brought from China, by Dr. Lind, and is now in Kew Garden.

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ART. XVIII.
Der #rabische Mento, oder die Betimmung des agenchen, &c.

i. e. The Arabian Mentor, or the Destination of Men. Crown 8vo.
PP 379. Cleves. 1788.
HIS work, originally written in Arabic, was translated,

in the twelfth century, into Hebrew; in which language it has been thrice printed. The last edition was published at Frankfort in 1741, under the title of · Conversations between a Prince and a Penitent;' and from this Hebrew text, it is now translated into German. The Hebrew translator, Abraham Levy, a Jew of Alexandria, had added to the original, many poetical notes, which M. BERGHANS, the German translator, being himself no poet, has thought proper to omit. It is suppored that the work had been written in Arabic several centuries before the age of Mr. Levy, who made his translation in the year 1776. The author appears to have been well acquainted with the scriptures, and the Platonic philosophy,

By the learned, his work deserves attention as a literary curiosity; and by the unlearned, it may be read with edification as a book of piety and morality. Yet in Christian countries, the morality of this Arabian is familiar and trite; and in his performance, we find but licile of what we chiefly wilhed to find, viz, circumstances characteristic of the author, or descriptive of the manners of his age and country.

We

*** We learn that some copies of this work have been in. ported, for sale, at the price of 4s. 6d. by Mr. Young, No.11

, Bridges-ftreet, Covent Garden.

Onli

Preface of 54

THE

ART. XIX. Morale di Moisè, ad Uso de Principianti nella Lingua Italiana, &c. i.e.

The Morals of Moses, for the Use of Beginners in the Italian Language. Translated from the original French of the Viscount DE TOUSTAIN, by the Abhe CURIONT. 16mo. Pp. 84, with a

25. 60. bound. Paris. HE necessity of putting into the hands of his Italian

scholars, a book that might be at once easy, suitable to their capacities, and fit for young persons of different conditions, induced M. CURIONI to chuse what he deemed the filteft for his purpose, from the French, in which language he found the present little work.

The Morale di Moisè, is a very short abstract, or abridgement, of the Pentateuch; and may easily be comprehended by children. It contains, at least, as much of the history as of the moral precep!s of the great Hebrew legislator; a circumftance of of which the title gives no intimation.

Rom.

as well as

ART. XX.
Vom Geift der Ebräischen Poefie. On the Spirit of Hebrew Poetry,

By J. G. HERDER. Vois. I. and II. 8vo. Leipzic. 1787.
N the republic of letters, as in every other free conftitution,

individuals must be tried only by those laws, which they are supposed to know and acknowlege. This principle, which ought to form the basis of all literary as well as civil judicature, is adopted by M. Herder as the foundation of his criticisms; and he frequently reminds his readers of the injustice, the absurdity, of estimating the merits of Hebrew poetry, by: comparison with that of Greece and Rome; and of forcing it into a conformity with the regular productions of nations, and ages, more refined. To judge rightly concerning the Books of the Old Testa nent, we must go back to the age of the writers of them; we must suppose ourselves in their circumftances; we must adopt their ideas; and view men and things in the light in which they surveyed them. This, our author observes, is the only way to catch the spirit of their poetry, and to comprebend the true meaning of their expressions.

In the first volume of this work, the subject is created in a series of dialogues; a form of composition which we do not think well adapted to a topic so extensive. Of this the author seems fenfible, and, in the second volume, has distributed bis remarks into differtations. This diverfity between the cwo parts

of

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of the same work, is rather a disadvantage to the whole, many excellent remarks being thereby deprived of that relative force and propriety, which they would have acquired from a more regular connection, and more judicious order of arrangement.

In judging of the work before us, we must consider its writer, not as a theological, but as a poetical and philosophical critic. He makes no oftentatious display of rabbinical literature, and enters not into the minute disquisitions of verbal interpretation ; but confiders his subject in a light that renders it interesting to every reader who has a taste for police learning. In explaining passages of scripture, he surveys them merely in an historical view; and, by examining and abstracting the rhetorical and poetical language in which they are exprefled, he endeavours to ascertain the plain facts which they are designed to transmit. In this process, however, he bas. sometimes taken liberties of which many of his readers will disapprove; and it must be owned that, in a few instances, his explanations are founded rather on plausible conjectures, than on solid argument,

In his first dialogue, he vindicates the Hebrew language from the objections usually made against the ftudy of it; he examines its structure, and, from its abounding in verbs and verbal nouns, he argues that it is peculiarly adapted to poetry; the chief excellency of which is action and scenery. This leads him to take a bort view of its etymology; after which, he explains the construction of its poetry, and the parallelism of sentences, which is peculiar to it.

In the next dialogue, M. HERDER investigates the earliest opinions of mankind concerning the Deity, creation, providence, the angels, and Elohim. His ideas on these subjects are truly philosophical ; and he speaks of them with a dignity of manner, and sublimity of style, that seem to be inspired by a deep sense of their importance. He exposes, with just contempt, the absurdity of those, who represent religion as originally derived from the terrors and apprehensions of mankind. These, he allows, may have been the source of the superstitious notions and practices which were afterward introduced; but be maintains that the religious sentiments of the earliest times were liberal and sublime. As instances of the exalted notions of the Deity, entertained by the patriarchs, and, by them, transmitted to the Jewilh poets of later ages, he refers his readers to the ninth chapter of Job, and the 139th psalm.

M. HERDER is of opinion that the term Elohim was used, by the moft ancient Hebrew writers, to fignify intellectual and spiritual beings; to whom, each in his respe&tive sphere, they fupposed that the immediate care of creation was committed by the Deity. They were, he thinks, considered as a kind of Genii, or guardian spirits, and of a rank inferior to angels. In

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