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our seats rocked under us. The recollection that we were eleven hundred and thirty-six feet under the surface of the earth; the fight, at every repeated flash, of our guides, and of myself, drefled in fable hue; the fall of the rocks that were detached by the explosion ; and the smoke of the gunpowder, will plead my apology should I candidly confess that I feltall the toupee which I have, stand erect. This concert continued about half an hour, and suddenly ceasing, left us in profound silence; which, together with the obscurity of the place, and the suffocating fteam of the gunpowder, rather increased than diminished the horror. This operation is repeated every day at noon.'
The Author proceeds to give a minute account of the different operations, from the separation of the rock, to the purifying of the metal : but they will afford no new information to the mineralogift. The iron mine of Dannemora, which is much the most profitable of any of those with which every part of Sweden and Lapland abounds, is said to yield 60 lb. of metal in a 100 lb. and the others about 30 lb. The iron extracted from this is known in Europe under the name of Oregrund; which name is derived from a sea port on the Baltic. A large portion of it is employed by us for making our best steel. The mine was discovered in 1470. The unwrought ore was first sold to the merchants of Lubeck. It was not until the reign of Guftavus Vafa that the Swedes worked it themselves. It is afserted that the mine of Dannemora yields about 40,000 schifp * of bar-iron per year, which is supposed to be one-tenth part of the quantity which all the iron mines of Sweden produce. Of this product, amounting to 400,000 schifp, 300,000 are annually exported; the remainder is manufactured at home. It is calculated that no less than 25,600 men are employed in mining, and the branches immediately connected with it, viz. 4000 for breaking the rocks, either by explosion or manual labour ; 10,800 to hew timber, and burn it into charcoal; 2000 are employed in smelting; 1800 in transporting the metal from the furnaces to the forges ; 600 in transporting fand, fuel, &c. 4000 for transporting the charcoal, and 2400 at the forges.
The filver mine of Salha or Salhaberg is the richest, as well as the most ancient of any. Ic exifted so early as 1188, and during the whole of the 14th century, it yielded 24,000 marks of silver per annum.
In the 15th century, the quantity was diminished to 20,000. In the reign of Charles X. it gave only 2000, and it furnishes at present Atill less, the ore yielding only one ounce of pure metal per quintal. The chief gallery whence the purest filver was obrained, having fallen in, is not yet cleared, notwithstanding their inceffant labour. They are also digging pits in a perpendicular direction, in order to arrive at the principal vein, which extends itself from the North to the
* A schifp is in weight 16 lb.
South-east. Formerly, lead employed in separating the metal
, was imported from England; but the mine furnishes, at present, a sufficient quantity for the purpose.
Various have been the attempts to encourage agriculture, so far at least that the fruits of the earth may supply the wants of the inhabitants ; and to create an influx of wealth by the eftablishment of different manufactures; yet these have never fucceeded to their wishes. But, if art has not been effectual in deriving, from the surface of the earth, all the advantages which they had expected; nature abundantly supplies the deficiency, in the growth of immenfe forests, that seem inexhaustible, the productions of which are exported to every part of Europe, fuch as planks, timber, pitch, tar, pot-ash, &c. The bowels of the earth are also the copious sources of plenty. The iron mines are the Peru of Sweden. Copper, filver, gold, lead, alum, vitriol, falt-petre, are extracted by the industrious workman from the botom of these barren mountains; but the iron mides form the most important article of commerce. The 300,000 Schifp annually exported, being valued at si crowns per febrity, yield about 8,934,750 crowns, bank-money. The copper mines are valued at 30,800 crowns. The alum exported, amounts to 30,000 crowns. Planks, timber, &c. produce annually 387,580. The berring fishery is in fo Aourishing a State at present, that they are able to export 160,000 tons, at 16 dollars (filver) per ton.
Letter 18th presents us with a comparative view of the two adjacent kingdoms, manifestly drawn with great attention, and, apparently, with an impartial pencil. We shall lay before our readers the following extract:
· These two nations, separated by a strait only, whose origin is doubtless, the fame, who inhabit climates nearly the same, and speak the same language, exhibit remarkable contrafts, both as to country, and inhabitants.in Denmark, the soil is ftony, but susceptible of cultivation; the hills are small, the woods of no great extent, bur the plains are vast and boundless: and there are many small lakes, but no rivers. The clothes of the men are long and of a red colour. In Sweden, on the contrary, nothing is seen but mountains, rocks
, deep vales, extensive foreits, large rivers, and immense lakes. Theit clothes are short, and blae. The Swede is of an eafy, elegant figure, lively, laborious, cheerful, and capable of speedy attachments
. The Dane is more clumsy, flower in his motions, fond of ease, does not work with equal alertness, is more serious and phlegmatic, more se: ferved, but more constant in his friendships. The dialect of the two Janguages is essentially the same, but it partakes of the characterific differences of the two nations. Both speak with a finging cadence
, but the Swede fings quicker than the Dane, terminates many of his words by vowels, and, in some provinces, by the a particularly : 29
* Their filver dollar is in value about 10 d. English.
boka, a book; beska, a horse; baka, a mountain ; and he raises the tone of his voice at the last syllable, after depressing it at the per ults. The pronunciation of the Dane is flow, somewhat guttural; and most of his words end with a consonant, as book, besk, baken. So that when cwo Swedes converse together, they inspire gaiety, while the melancholy accent of the Danes disposes to gravity. Both nations cultivate the sciences, and have distinguished themselves in the belles lettres, The Swedes can enumerate several great men, who have not only acquired celebrity at home, but are eiteemed and admired by all Europe ; such as a Linné, a Berquian, a Celsius, a De Geer (the Reaumur of Sweden), a Menanderheilm, a Wargentin, and the learned historiographer Lagerbring. He died in 1788. The Danes, on the other hand, can boast their Tycho Braebe, Römer, Gaspard Bartholin, Simon Pauli, Wormius, Holberg, and many others. To whom let me add the present ornaments of Copenhagen, M. De Kratzenftein, Rector of the University, and Professor of Experimental Philosophy ; the Grand Chamberlain De Suhm * ; De Trescauw, Professor in Theology; and Kalischen, the Chirurgical Profetior.'
Letters 21, 22, 23, contain a concise abridgment of the Swedish history, from the reign of Guftavus Vala to the year 1786. It is confined to the different revolutions which have so frequently taken place in that country, from the jarring interests of kings, who wished to reign despotic; of nobles, actuated by ambition and the love of wealth; and of the people, jealous of their liberties. This sketch is chiefly introductory to the revolution which took place in the year 1772; and which gives us the present æra of the Swedish government. The state of the nation previous to that event, and which prepared the way for it; the different factions that difturbed the public tranquillity; the intrigues of the French court; the contrary intrigues of the English; the unbounded ambition, avarice, and tyranny of the aristocratic party; and the address, eloquence, and policy of the king, who, while he relieved the inferior orders from the oppressions under which they groaned, artfully employed them as inftruments to establith his own authority; are delineated in a lively and entertaining manner. In their wretched situation, they had no other alternative than of the two evils to chuse the leaft; and it was only by throwing the plenitude of power into
Our traveller informs us, in a note, that M. De Suhm has published fourteen volumes on history, particularly on the history of the North, in the Danish language; and that, according to the judgment of Professor Trescauw, his works contain the most authentic accounts of Denmark of any that have been published. Their titles are the following: On the Origin of Nations in general. Cop. 1769. The Origin of the Northern Nations. Cop. 1770. On the Odin and Mythology of the Northern Nations. Cop. 1771. On the Emigrations of the Northern Nations. Cop. 1772-1773:
Critical History of Denmark, 4 vols, 1774-81. The History of Denmark, with Plates, in Folio. A Colleca tion of historical Pieces concerning the History of Denmark.
the hands of the king, that they could enable him to subdue the many-headed monster. It appears from this representation, that if it be posible for a nation to be happy under an absolute monarch, it is under the administration of Guftavus III, who has, with infinite labour, effectuated a reform through every department of the state, and has hitherto only employed the power entrusted to him, for the general good. The people, however, seem to be still watchful over their
liberties ; nor have they, either by the faireft promises, and, what is yet more, by the performance of these promises, been lulled into a dangerous security. Ata general assembly held in 1786, after an interval of eight years, his majefty laid before them several propofitions, which were rejected by the different orders, as infringements on their ancient laws and customs. The propofitions were, I. Not to punih infanticide by death, but by perpetual imprisonment, with the addition of being publicly whipped every year, on the day on which the crime was perpetrated. II. To prevent the division of lands, by inftituting that they lhould be transmitted to the eldest son, a provision being made for the younger branches of a family. III. To authorise the king to employ such a sum out of the national bank, as should enable him to establish magazines of grain in different parts of the kingdom, as a provision against scarcity. IV. To authorise his majesty to draw from the bank a fund, in order to defray certain expences of the different mines, particularly to protect the copper mines of Fahlun from inundations; depositing in the bank such a quantity of copper as should be equivalent to the species employed. Of these four propositions, all were rejected, excepting that relative to the establishment of magazines.' The clergy persisted in the resolution to punish the crime of infanticide by death. The equeftrian order opposed the proposition for the division of lands. And the Ştates refused the supply for the mines; alleging that the evil proceeded from the mismanagement of the persons immediately interested. This was the first instance of an effectual opposition to his majesty's plans. He dismisled the diet with an harangue replete with eloquence, in which he expressed his apprehensions " that suspicions as ill-founded in themselves as they were unmerited in him, who had rendered them free, would disturb that harmony which he had endeavoured to maintain for the space of fourteen years with so much difficulty, and with a total inattention to his own interests."
• In the course of this year, 1786, an academy was established for the amelioration of the Swedih language, on the plan of the French academy. The academy of infcriptions and belles lettres was also renewed at the saine time.'
Although the chief attention of this traveller has been engaged by the affairs of Sweden, we are occasionally presented with some
Arictures concerning Denmark : and in the 24th and laft letter, we find a circumstantial account of the changes which took place in this kingdom also, in the year 1772, which terminated in the disgrace of Matilda, and the destruction of the Counts Brandt and Struenfee. The story of these unfortunate personages has been often told. But while party-zeal predominated, and animosities ran high, it has been told with such various colourings, that the world has been at a loss to determine what degrees of censure and of pity were due to the sufferers. The author's narrative is the more worthy of attention, as he was an impartial collator of the most authentic informacions that could be obtained. He tells us that, exclusive of what he learned on the spot, he has used the papers of one well known in the republic of letters, who was involved in the disgrace of Struensee. But as his account was written with passion and manifeft partiality, such parts only are selected which appeared indubitable facts We must refer the curious reader to the work itself for the detail of particplars, and shall content ourfelves with the transcript of the following paragraph, which, as it represents the ambitious Struensee placed on the highest pinnacle of power, indicates the immediate cause of his dreadful fall.
• Struensee, blinded by his good fortune, and yet more by an ambition that knew no bounds, was not contented with being, virtually, sovereign. He was determined to reign with splendour, and to draw his name out of obscurity by enrolling it among the first nobility in Denmark; he was accordingly ennobled, and obtained the rank of Count. Dissatisfied with even this elevation, he was determined to have a title that should correspond with the dignity of his station; and as there was none extant which could sufficiently characterize his office, the title of Privy Counsellor of the Cabinet (Conseiller intime du Cabinet) was invented. Nor was he merely invested with this ; but the unlimited powers which the king had annexed to it, were as novel as the title itself. He was authorised to commit to writing, in that manner which he should judge the most proper, every mandate that he received from the mouth of the king, and to transmit it to the different departments under the seal of the Cabinet, without the signature of his majesty, which was deemed superfluous. The day following this absurd grant, an injunction was made public, figned by the king himself, compelling every department to respect the Count's orders. The minister laid before his majesty, every Saturday, extracts of the orders he had issued in the course of the week, by
This manuscript was originally composed in the French language, and published in German, under the title of Authentische und böchstenerk würdisch aufklärungen, Sc. i. e. Authentic and most remarkable Illucidations, respecting the History of the Counts Struensee and Brandt, contained in a Manuscript composed by a Person of Rank: first published in Germany, 1988.--A translation bas lately appeared in this country; which will be noticed in a subsequent Review.