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thods of exciting emulation, the author proposes to subftitute in the place of that multiplicity of spectacles and of other paftimes which corrupt the morals of the provincials, festivities in celebration of some distinguished characters; and that there should be held in the places of their nativity; and that the sovereiga should occasionally honour them with his presence.

From the general outlines of the two essays before us, our readers will obferve, in many points, a coincidence of sentiment, where their respective attachments to the different governments under which the competitors live, have not, through the inAuence of happy prejudice, induced each to prefer his own. But with respect to metaphysical acumen, beauty of style, and energy

of expreffion, M. MATHON DE LA COUR has certainly left bis meepmarival far behind. M. De w four treats the subject with the

cool investigation of one whose general philanthropy and good sense dictate what is desirable and proper to be done in a ftate, with which he has no immediate connection; M. DE MADMAN is manifestly animated with the warmth of a man who hopes to be a spectator, a participator of the good in contemplation. But justice cannot be done to this superiority of manner, without giving the reader larger specimens than our limits will permit.

It is observable that the ideas of both these writers are directed and confined to the form of monarchical government establihed in France: where the legislative power being deposited in the bands of the sovereign as well as the executive, the hopes of all men must be directed toward him alone for every species of re. form. Questions of this nature must, therefore, presuppose a dis

. position in the monarch to promote the happiness of his subjeas, and thac bis ardent wilh is to be made acquainted with the means. Without this disposicion, the most rational plans must prove in. efficacious. But under such a government as that of Great-Biri. tain, where the right of proposing laws is centered in the people, a question like this before us might give rise to numberless plans, which, not being under the arbitrary control of an individual

, would meet with less oppofirion to their execution. With us, power, and dispofitions, are to be looked for among the people; and these, united with a knowlege of the proper means, would, render the road to general prosperity plain, ealy, and certain.

ART. IX.
Caufe, cur Josephus Cædem Puerorum Betblemeticorum (Matth. ii.

16.) narratam Silentio præterierit. By Proteflor VOLBORTH.
4to. Gotuingen.
T appears strange to many, that Josephus, who Aourished a

little after the period of this remarkable transaction, should have passed it over in total filence. Scaliger and others have res prelented this fingularity in a manner injurious to the character of

Matobow,

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Matthew, and to the authenticity of sacred history. The sportive Volcaire found it too delicious a morsel of criticism to suffer it to escape his notice. Dr. Lardner, Hoffman, and others, have endeavoured to account for this filence of the prophane historian : but the German Professor thinks that they have not done that justice to the argument of which it is susceptible. What he ad. vances on the Tubje&t may be reduced to the following particu. lars. 1. No hiftorian whatever, even an annalist, can be expected to record every event which happened within the period of which he wsites. 2. Contemporary hiftorians do not relate the same facts. Suetonius tells us many things which Tacitus bas omitted, and Dio Caffius supplies the deficiencies of both. 3. The cruelty of the deed agrees very well with the known chaa racter of Herod. 4. It is unreasonable to make the filence of , the prophane writer an objection to the credibility of the sacred, wbile there is equal, and even superior reason to confide in the fidelity of the latter. 5. Herod would naturally be disposed to take such precautions as he might think neceffary, without being scrupulous concerning the means. 6. Macrobius, and other Christian writers, in an early age of the church, refer to the event. 7. The daughter could not have been so great as our adversaries have represented. Voltaire and others treat the fact as stated by the poet Marius, who exaggerates the number of the fain to 15,000. Now these being only males two years old and under, it is obvious by the faireft calculation, that accord. ing to this statement, more children must be born annually in the village of Bethlehem, tban there are either in Paris or in London.

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ART. X. Voyage en Suede, &c. i. e. Travels through Sweden, comprehending a circumstantial Account of the Population, Agriculture, Commerce and Finances of the Country: To which is annexed 20 Abridgment of the History of the Kingdom, and of its different Forms of Government, from Guftavus I. in the Year 1553, to 1786, inclusively: With some Particulars relative to the History of Denmark. By a Dutch Officer. Large Octavo. 518 Pages. Hague. 1789. HE title of this publication is sufficiently ample to give the

reader some general ideas of its contents. As we have perused it with much pleafure, we could not help feeling some degree of regret, that its intelligent Author should chuse to conceal his name, as that would have been, in some degree; a voucher for the truth of the facts. Sweden, lying far out of the circle of the grand tour, and not poffeffing pleasurable charms enough to make the most excentric traveller deviate from that

circle,

THE

circle, is consigned over to the merely accidental attention of the philosophical traveller. Nor will a small Mare of philosophy be sufficient to surmount the difficulties which attend visiting diftant places, separated from each other by craggy rocks, extensive forests, or desert plains; where the exhaufted traveller must be contented with knikkebroë , miserable beverage, inftead of a hot fowl and fberry; and repose his wearied limbs in a species of crib, instead of enjoying the luxuries of a feather. bed. Sweden, as our author observes, is not, either from its locality or climate, formed to become the rendez vous of a great number of strangers, nor the passage for many travellers. A Stranger who visits the country from mere curiosity, is bimsefa curiolity. It cannot be a subject of wonder therefore, that the information received concerning this country is so imperfect and fuperficial. The harvest is much greater than the number of labourers; and many subjects are left for subsequent observers. It does not appear in the course of these Letters (for the ac. count of the journey is given in an epistolary form) that out Traveller was vefted with any public character, nor had he any other object in view than that of satisfying a laudable curiofity. He was also unacquainted with the Swedish language; but he was richly furnished with letters of introduction to persons of the first rank; whose fituations enabled them to give him the defired information ; and of whose civilities and hospitality, as well as that of the whole Swedith nation, he speaks in the highest terms of praise.

This volume is printed in so ceconomical a form, that a more fashionable edition might eafily spread itself into three volumes; and it contains much entertaining and useful information concerning the various subjects announced in the title page.

The first fixteen letters are transcripts of his journal; from which it is obvious that he permitted nothing to escape his ate tention. Towns, castles, ports, mines, garrisons, arsenals, public buildings, academies, libraries, and canals, operas, man ners, &c. &c. are described with a minuteness which is only excusable in country, the remote parts of which are so little known. The picturesque scenes, though delineated in a lively manner, become rather tedious from their. sameness. They are to be considered at beit, but as mulic between the acts,

* Knikkebroë, or Kakebroë, is the bread eaten by the common peo. ple. It is made of a mixture of barley and rye. It is round and fat, about the size of a common plate, with a hole in the middle, and about three-fourths of an inch in thickness. They make it once, of at moft, cwice, in the year, and running a string through the centre, they hang up large quantities of these cakes to dry in their huts.

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which, however pleasing at first, we hear with impatience, if it continues too long *.

We shall select the account of the Author's descent into the copper mine of Fahlun, as a specimen of his descriptive talents.

During the four hours that I wandered in the bowels of Kopparberg, as I descended from gallery to gallery, sometimes by ladders, and sometimes by stairs, my astonishment increased at every step. At first I went down by zigzag stairs, tolerably commodious, into a Jarge cavity, about 300 feet deep, and 2000 paces in circumference. At the extremity of the cave, I saw, in a corner, a hut built of wood, fix or seven feet in height; at the door of which, stood two figures, half naked, and as black as ink. I took them for the pages of Pluto. Each had a lighted torch in his hand. In this hut, is one of the entries into the subterraneous regions, and it is the most commodious of the four which communicated with the cave. I and my servant were immediately presented with a black dress; a precaution that is generally taken to preserve the clothes of the inquisitive from being spoiled in the narrow passages of the galleries. This mournful apparel, together with a prayer uttered by my guides, imploring the divine aid, that we might escape unburt from these regions, intimidated my servant, who was a young Frieze, in such a manner, that he would scarcely submit to be dressed en Scaramouche, much less descend into the mine. Passing, at one time, through alleys propped up by timber, at another, under vaults that supported them. selves, we came to immense large halls, the height or extremities of which could not be reached by the feeble lights that we carried. In some of these are forges, where the different tools used in working the mines are made or repaired. It was here so excessively hot, thac the workmen were entirely naked. Other halls served either for magazines of gunpowder, or cordage, and other utensils, necessary for their operations. These communicate by means of the galleries; and these galleries communicate with each other by Jadders or steps. There are also apertures made from the upper surface, in a perpendicular line to the lowest gallery, without any interruption. There Terve at once to convey fresh air, and for the passage of any burdens, which being placed in large vessels, are moved upward and downward by means of pullies, that are in continual motion during the whole time of labour. The pullies are kept in motion by horses on the top of the mountain. The vessels are attached to chains of iron, common ropes being subject to speedy erofion by the vitriolic vapours which ascend from the mines. The irons themselves will not endure for a long space of time, and therefore ropes of cows hair, or of hogs bristles, are often made to supply their place. The

* This remark would have been, in some measure, obviated, if the author could have accomplished his plan: which was, to present the public with some of the most romantic views both of Sweden and Denmark. The drawings taken on the spot are now in the hands of the celebrated artist t, who published the beautiful scenes in Switzerland, in a feries of coloured prints; and will be given out with all proper expedition.

+ Mr. Hentzy. App. Rev, VOL. LXXX.

SC

apertures

apertures are not only convenient for the purposes above mentioned, and give vent to a peftilential atmosphere; but co-operating witë the heat, proceeding from the forge, and other physical causes, the excite, even in the deepest parts, such excessive draughts of air, tha: they resemble the most violent hurricanes. The roofs that are not fupported by art afford, in many places, a very singular appearance. The vitriol distilling through the rocks, crystallizes on their surface, and forms prisms of different figures. These are suspended from a thousand places, ten, twelve, twenty feet in length, and of a met beautiful green. The reflection of the light from their various surfaces, and from the minerals that surround the walls, produces 21 effect more casy to be conceived than described. In one of the passages, upward of seven hundred feet below the surface of the earth, the vitriol is diffolved, and it is pumped out of the mine by means of a curious hydraulic machine. The water which springs up at this depth very copiously, is set in motion by horses, diffolves the vitriol, and conveys it into a reservoir which contains a quantity of old iron. Twenty-four of these horses have stables in the gallery ; their margers being cut out of the rock. This work continues night and day; horses and men being relieved every six hours. These animals are hoifted up through the openings, once in a year, to undergo a general review. Curiolicy induced me to descend to about eleven hundred feet under the earth, to the lowest gallery, where the principal explosion is made. Notwithstanding the excessive cold of this place

, the men who were occupied in cleaving the rock, were not only naked, but in profuse sweats. The obscurity of these regions, the distant fires spreading a visible gloom, naked men dark as the mine. rals which they work, surrounded by the sparks that Ay from their hammers ; the horrid noise of their labour, and of the wheels of the hydraulic machines, joined with the tremendous figures which we met, from time to time, with lighted torches in their hands, made me doubt whether I was not really in Tartarus.

• Having at length arrived at a kind of hall, the roofs of which were supported by pillars hewn out of the rock, and surrounded with seats of the faine nature, my guides desired me to repose myself

, and listen to some music that would amuse me. On my enquiring of what kind ? they aniwered it was the noise which proceeded from blowing up the rocks, to facilitate their labour. I confented, on condition that they should remain with me. They readily agreed, as this was the only place totally free from danger. One of them went out for a moment to give the necesary directions, and, returning, fac by my side. After waiting about a quarter of an hour

, trembling with cold, and my patience exhauited, I threatened to renounce the music, if they were not more expeditious. While I was speaking, the explosion began. My ears had hitherto been strangers to the like. The whole extent of these subterraneous gions, as far as our fight could reach, was instantly illuminated, and we were immediately left in total darkness; for the pressure of the air had extinguished our torches. This obfcurity was only interrupted by a new explofion on the right and left, accompanied with fudden Rashes of light. Echoes redoubled the trokes with thundering noise

, The vaults seemed to fplit over our heads, the ground trembled, and

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