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the Nabob of Arcot in the moment of adulation was pleased to style them, a nation of Kings; and which has acquired them among their neighbours the distinctive appellation of les fiers inJulaires; with respect to this infirmity, we say, and wbich involves in it a contempt of others, our author thinks it by no means reprehensible in the proportion that many have done; but considers it as the effect of the constitution of the country, which places its members above the reach of any other power than that of the law.
To be in possession of any particular advantage, and yet to thew not a proper sense of it, is undoubtedly a mark of weakness; but then to evince a disdain of others, because they may not be in an equally fortunate fituation with ourselves, is scarcely less fo. Our love of our country is highly commendable. The principle cannot be too warmly or too paflionately cherished. It will be our protection in the day of danger;' in the day when tbe Spoilers shall be let loose among us, and when the giant AUTHORITY, free and unfettered, shall be seen in our streets and public places, alarming us by his mighty ftrides! But this our patriotism, as we have already said, implies not a scornfulness and contempt of the surrounding states: which would be illiberal and unmanly in the extreme.
After some general remarks on the arts, manufactures, and commerce of England, M. D'ARCHENHOLZ proceeds to a de fcription of London and its environs, interspersed with occasional refledions on the manners and customs of the people, their several amusements, and particular employments. This part of the performance affords not, to the English reader, any thing new; and the observations, as we have already declared, are not, on every occasion, fufficiently important. We find this writer at one time in the ball-room of the court, and at another time in a cellar at St. Giles's: but even in the latter, perhaps, a real philosopher might employ his thoughts and observations with fome success. But enough of England. We must now direct our attention to a different clime.
In the contemplation of blooming Italy, we naturally feel the glow of satisfaction and delight; but we must, at the same time, acknowlege, that this sacista&tion is not in the same proportion with that which we have formerly experienced. But this may be partly occafioned by satiety; for bad we not before been glutted with the fruits of the “ garden of the world,” as it is sometimes styled, we might perhaps, at the present hour, have gathered its several productions with an eager hand.
M. D'Archenholz has in this, as in the former part of his work, given a particular description of the country, and of its inhabitants. Our readers will scarcely expect us, bowever, to cnter into a detail of the pi&ures, buildings, and Aatues of
Faly, any more than of the state of letters and of arts: the
ole is sufficiently known. With regard to the manners and principles of the people, as
y spring from the constitution of the several ftates of which is country is composed, they are necessarily much diversified ;
ad this is very pointedly adverted to in the present performance. National characters, or the qualities of a people at large kinys this writer), depend entirely on their form of government;
rit is an absolute truth, that men constantly receive from the
vereign whatever impressions he may think proper to give .... em. Hence the great diffimilarity which we discover between we inhabitants of Venice, Florence, Naples, and Rome, who
ay not improperly be ftyled neighbours, but who are sepa
itely governed by their own particular laws.' We acknowage the force of this pofition respecting government, as far as 28 depends on an established and regular mode of rule, in contraiftinction to that which has contended for the influence of (limate on the manners of the people: but we cannot subscribe to he opinion with all the latitude whith this author has given to
The fentiment appears to be flavih (inasmuch as it makes or any ftipulation for the virtue of the prince), and is so unlike
o any thing which presented itself in the former part of the work, that we think it must have fallen from the writer through
Anadvertency. But perhaps he does not mean to speak of there impressions as a necessary consequence, but rather that mankind care too apt, in all events, to receive and retain them. In such a case, the whole is fufficiently conäftent.
The picture which this gentleman has drawn of the modern Italian, will, by many, be declared a daub. He confiders him as the most wretched and most despicable of human beings. Wretched, by reason of the government under which he lives *; and despicable from his want of virtue, and from the utter stupidity (l'ignorance crasé) which uniformly marks his character.' But the colouring, in the latter particular, is not in strict conformity with truth. Italy, even at the present day, can boast of some truly ingenious men.
M. D'ARCHENHOLZ, however, is so greatly enamoured of Englith polity and English manners, that he seems unable to view any other nation with a tolerable degree of complacency. We must at the same time remark, thac the accompanying observations on a state of vafsalage, are such as do him honour. On the whole, the present performance may be ranked among the useful and the agreeable in its class; although its partialities are frequently so great, that it was impossible for us to pass them unnoticed. A.B.
• We mean to offer a few observations on this subject in our account of a volume now before us, intitled, The Temporal Government of the Pope's State,
ART. IV. C.F. E. HAMMARDS Reife, &c. i.e. Travels in the Year 178;
through Upper Silesia, and Part of Poland, to the Rufian Ars in the Ukraine. By C. F. E. HAMMARD, Lieutenant of Ezgineers in the Pruffian Service. 8vo. Gotha. 1787.
HAMMARD': design in undertaking this journey, wa
to learn the art of war under the General Romanzor Sadunaiskoy: and, if the volume now given should be favou: ably received, he proposes to publish two more ; the one coucaining an account of the march of the Imperial army throug Russia, the other describing its route through Moldavi and Walachia. He appears to be an attentive and intelliger: observer; and his volume contains many interesting particulars concerning the inhabitants, policy, cultivation, produce, ap: commerce of the countries through which he passed.
Upper Silesia does not, by M. HAMMARD's account, ap. pear to have derived any great advantages from its being subject to the King of Prussia, with whom, when he took pofseffionc the country, the nobles ftipulated for the preservation of the: privileges. Hence the peasants are in a moit abje&t ftace of 1avery; which, though somewhat softened by the attentions of the sovereign and the equity of the states, cannot, lays our author, be entirely abolished, without ruining the nobles, by depriving them of hands for labour. How far this reasoning is just or valid, we shall not, at present, examine. It is however certain, that before liberty can be a real blessing, either to themselves or to the community, they ought to be a litike humanised by instruction ; and to be, in some degree, reformed from the habits of idleness and drunkeness, to which they are bere said to be excessively addicted. The Prince of Anbak Coethen was at considerable expence to provide for the inftrucfon, health, sublistence, and domestic comfort of his vallals in the reigniory of Plesse; but there benevolent attentions made no other impression on them, than to occasion an insurrection in 1781. To send their children to the schools established for them, they considered as a hardship, which, under a variety of frivolous pretences, they contrived to elude; and they spent, in idleness and intemperance, those days which were allowed them to labour for their own fubfiftence. M. HAMMARD is of opie ! nion, that if their clergy were lels íuperstitious, and more careful to inftruct them in the principles and practice of religion;
it divine service were performed in their own language, inttead of in Latin, and if good schools were eftablished, they might gradually be civilized and improved.
Though Upper Silesia is less fertile than the Lower, it is nevertheless well cultivated, and produces what would be suffic
eient, not only to supply the inhabitants, but also to permit a confiderable exportation of grain; but the distilleries, which, though they enrich the nobles, ruin the people, consume a great part of it. This bufiness was at one time carried on by the Jews, who acquired large fortunes by it; for, no sooner was the corn sown, than they claimed the crop in return for the money which they had advanced; but, in 1781, these usurious bas. gains were abolished by an order from the King.
The southern part of Poland, through which M. HAM. MARD'S route lay, exhibits a moft wretched scene of desolation and poverty, the sad consequences of civil diffenfion, and of foreign and domestic oppression. The cities, if they deserve this appellation, serve only to vary the form of misery: many of them are encumbered with ruins, and remarkable for the iadigence of their inhabitants, who are chiefly Jews. Even in Lublin, which, when compared with the reft, is in a flourishing state, and distinguished by its trade and manufactures, the ftreets are narrow and gloomy; of the houses, only the ground door is habitable, while the upper fories are nodding to their fall, and threaten the destruction of the passenger. Sometimes, indeed, a more pleasing prospect occurs, when the traveller enters the domains of a nobleman, who has sense enough to perceive that, by ameliorating the condition of his vassals, he, in fact, promotes his own interests.
What M. HAMMARD says of the Polish nobility, appears to be just and candid. After observing that pride forms the basis of their character, and is the source of many ridiculous prejudices, as well as of much vice and folly, he allows that it also produces and fofters many good qualities, particularly courage, magnanimity, generosity, and bofpitality; the latter is common to the Poles of every rank, and may be found in the cottage as well as in the palace.
Of the Polish ladies, our traveller speaks highly; and informs us, that, in general, their natural attractions are improved by an excellent education, which renders their company very agreeable. They apply themselves, from their infancy, io the ftudy of foreign languages, and few affairs of any importance are transacted, in which they are not concerned: they have much more self-command and penetration than their countrymen; and many a foreign minifter has found bis political sagacity foiled by their management.
As the traveller enters Volbinia, the scene improves; the country is fertile and well cultivated; the inhabitants, though ftill flaves, are less degenerate than their neighbours, and seein to poffefs a spirit and abilities fuperior to their condition. One of the largest cities of Volhinia, is Dubno, belonging to Prince Michael Lubomiríky. It is a place of considerable commerce,
and during the fair, which is held in the month of January, :: supposed to contain from twenty-five to thirty thousand person!, as it is che resort of traders from Turkey, Germany, and Swit zerland; the little shops which the Prince has erected in the market-place, for those who frequent the fair, are neat and co venient; and there is a theatre built in the modern style, which, at this season, is occupied by a company of Polish actors.
Io Podolia, we are told, the venereal disease prevails to i great a degree, that whole villages are infected by it. This says M. HAMMARD, the inhabitants ascribe to the Ruffans, whom they attribute all their calamities, without reflecting the the French, who were there with the confederates, may also bar contributed to its propagation. It is asserted, that many of th: Ruffian officers look upon a light touch of it, to be the bei preservative against the plague.
The cities in the Ukraine are poor and ill-built, except N: merow and Czudnow, in which the people are employed in the manufacture of cotton, in the making of glass and earthen w2": and in the bleaching of wax: Mihilow and Berdiezow are a': enriched by the fairs held in them, and the commerce which it Jatter encourage. The foil is remarkably fertile, but ill cul: vated; because the spirit and industry of the peasants are de pressed by slavery. The Cossacs, however, who inhabit th: borders of the Ukraine, are more free, and retain some trac of that liberty, which, till the reign of Sigismond III. tbey et joyed as a democratic itate under the protection of Poland. I war, they are bold, but cruel, neither giving nor taking quarte, and knowing no medium between death and vi&tory. The have a remarkable talent of imitating any model of workm2thip that is given them, and, with proper instruction, migt: eafily be made to excel in arts and manufactures.
The Zaporoguian Coffics inhabit one of the most pleafar: and fertile districts of the Ukraine, and preserve a kind of de mocratic government under an elective chief, who is styled Altaman, or Hærman, and who resides at Sitscha; but, fince their last invasion of Poland, their number is greatly dimi nished, and the court of Ruflia seems resolved to extirpate ther.
This invasion happened in the year 1770, when they pene trated as far as Volhinia. Gouda, their chief, bad been in the service of the Waywode, Count Potocki, but, conceiving him self injured, he determined on revenge. For this purpose
, he went over to the Zaporoguians, whom he instigated to take up : arms in favour of the Ukraine Coffacs. No rooner had the Rufian army retired into quarters, than he attacked the territory of the Waywode; and, in the di&rict of Braxlaw, put to the word all who were not of his party. Those, in the adjacent country, who had time to escape, Aed to Human, a small town in the