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The chance of fix names, says Mr. R. being placed by two authors in the fame order, is as I 10 720, of twelve, as I to 479,001,600. It is therefore utterly improbable that these names would have been placed in this order on the Marble, if the author of the Inscription had not tran cribed them from the biftorian.'

On this argument we In all obierve, 1. That the very contrary conclufion might poflibly be juft, that the historian trans fcribed from the Inscription. Yet we shall grant that in the present cafe this is improbable, especially if the author of the Various History be the same Elian, who, according to Philoftratus, Vir. Sophift. II. 31. never quitted Italy in his life. But an intermediate writer might have copied the Marble, and Ælian might have been indebted to him. 2dly, We see no reason to allow, that the lacunæ are properly supplied. Suppose we hould affert, that the names stood originally thus, Miletus, Ephesus, Erythræ, Clazomenz, Lebedos, Chios, Phocæa, Colophon, Myus, Priene, Samos, Teos. lo this arrangement, only four names would be together in the same order with Elian; and from there Miletus must be excepted, because there is an obvious reason for mentioning that city first. Three only will then remain, and surely that is too flight a resemblance to be construed into an imitation. For Pausanias and Paterculus, quoted by our Author, p. 154, have both enumerated the same iwelve cities, and both agree in placing the five last in the same order, nay, the fix last, if Voffius's conjecture, that TEUM ought to be inserted in Paterculus after Myum TEM, be as true as it is plausible. Bat who imagines that Pausanias had either opportunity or inclination to copy Paterculus ? 3dly, Allowing that the names were engraved on the Marble exa&ly in the order that Elian bas chosen, is there no way of solving the phænomenon, but by fuppofing that one borrowed from the other? Seven authors at least (Mr. R. seems to say more, p. 154, 5.) mention the colonization of the same cities; how many authors now. loft may we reasonably conjecture to have done the same? If therefore the composer of the Chronicle, and Elian, lighted on the fame author, the former would probably preserve the same arrangement that he found, because in tranfcribing a list of names, he could have no temptation to deviate, and the latter would certainly adhere faithfully to his original, because he is a notorious and servile plagiarist. Mr. R. indeed thinks, p. 158, that if a succeeding writer had borrowed the words of the Inscription, he would not have fupprefled the name of the author. This opinion muft fall to the ground, if it be faewn that Elian was accustomed to suppress the names of the authors to whom he was obliged. Elian has given a list of fourteen celebrated gluttons, and, elsewhere, another of twentycight drunkards (from which, by the way, it appears, that 3


people were apt to eat and drink rather too freely in ancient as well as modern times); and both these lifts contain exactly the same names in the same order with Athentüs. Now it is observable, that fourteen names may be transposed 87,178,291,200 different ways, and that twenty-eight names admit of 304,888, 344,611,713,860,501,504,000,000 different transpofitions, &c. &c. Elian therefore transcribed them from Atheneüs ; yec Elian never mentions Atheneüs in his Various History. So that whether Elian copied from the Marble, or only drew from a common source, he might, and very probably would, conceal his authority.

VIII. The history of the discovery of the Marbles is obscure and ansatisfaclory.

In p. 169, it is said to be related with suspicious circumflances, and without any of those clear and unequivocal evidences which always discriminate truth from falsehood.' The question then is finally decided. If the Inscription has not any of those evidences, which truth always pofleffes, and which falsehood always wants, it is most certainly forged. The learned Differtaror seems for a moment to have forgotten the modeft character of a DOUBTER, and to personate the dogmatist. But waving this, we shall add, tbatas far as we can see, no appearance of fraud is discoverable in any part of the transaction. The history of many inscriptions is related in a manner equally unsatisfactory; and if it could be clearly proved that the Marble was dug up at Paros, what would be easier for a critic who is determined at any rate to object, than to say, that it was buried there in order to be afterward dug up? If the person who brought this treafure to light had been charged on the spot with forging it, or concurring in the forgery, and had then refused to produce the external evidences of its authenticity, we thould have a right to question, or perhaps to deny, that it was genuine. But no such objedion having been made or hinted, at the original time of its discovery, it is unreasonable to require such teitimony as je is now impoffible to obtain. " There is nothing said of it in Sir T. Ree's negriations. What is the inference! i hac Sir Thomas knew nothing of it, or believed it to be fpurious, or forged it, Of was privy to the forgery? Surely nothing of this kind can be pretended. But let our Author account for the circumstance if he can. To us it seems of no consequence on either side, Peiresc made no effort to recover this precious relic, and from his compofure he seems to have entertained jome secret suspicions of its awtbenticity.' Peiresc would have had no chance of recovering it after it was in the poffeffion of Lord Arundel's agents. He was either a real or a pretended patron of letters, and it became him to affe& to be pleased that the Inscription had come into Eng. land, and was illuftrated by his learned friend Selden. John F. Gronovius bad with great labour and expence collated Anna


Comnena's Alexiades, and intended to publish them. While he was waiting for some other collations, they were intercepted, and the work was published by another. As soon as Gronovius heard this unpleasant news, he answered, that learned men were engaged in a common cause; that if one prevented another in any publication, be ought rather to be thanked for lightening the burthen, than blamed for interfering. But who would conclude from this answer, that Gronovius thought the Alexiades fpurious, or not worthy of any regard?

Mr. R. calculates, that the venders of the Marble received 200 pieces. But here again we are left in the dark, unless we knew the precise value of these pieces. Perhaps they might be equal to an hundred of our pounds, perhaps only to fisty. Beside, as they at first bargained with Samson, Pieresc's supposed Jew agent, for fifty pieces only, they could not have forged the Inscription with the clear prospect of receiving more. Neither does it appear that they were paid by Sainson. It is fully as reasonable to suppose fraud on the one side, as on the other; and if Samson, after having the Marble in his pofieflion, refused or delayed to pay the sum itipulated, he might, in consequence of such refusal or delay, be thrown into prison, and might, in revenge, damage the Marble before the owners could recover it.

We own this account of ours to be a romance; but it is law. ful to combat romance with romance.

IX. The world has been frequently imposed upon by spurious books and infcriptions, and therefore we should be extremely cautious with regard to what we receive under the venerable name of antiquity.

Much truth is observable in this remark. But ihe danger lies in applying such general apophthegms to particular cales. In the first place, it must be observed, that no forged books will exactly suit Mr. R.'s purpose, but such as pretend to be the author's own hand-writing ; nor any inscriptions, but such as are ftill extant on the original materials, or such as were known to be extant at the time of their pretended discovery. Let the argument be bounded by these limits, and the number of forgeries will be very much reduced. We are not in poffesion of Cyriacus Anconitanus's book, but if we were governed by authority, we lould think that the testimony of Reinesius in bis favour greatly over balances all that Auguftinus has said to his prejudice. The opinion of Reinesius is of the more weight, because he suspects Urfinus of publishing counterfeit monuments. We likewise find the most eminent critics of the present age quoting Cyriacus without suspicion (v. Rubnken. in Timzi Lex. Plat. p. 1o. apud Koen, ad Gregor. p. 140.) The doctrine advanced in the citation from Hardouin is exactly conformable to that writer's usual paradoxes. He wanted to deftroy the credit of all the Greek and Latia writers. Buc inscrip13


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tions hung like a millftone about the neck of his proje&. He therefore resolved to make sure work, and to deny the genuineress of as many as he saw convenient; to effect which purpole, be intrenches himself in a general accusation. If the author of the Differtation bad quoted a few more paragraphs from Hardouin, in which he endeavours, after his manner, to shew the forgery of some inscriptions, he would at once bave adminiftered the poison and the antidote. But to the reveries of that learned madman, respeding Greek supposititious compositions of this nature, we shall content ourselves with opposing the sentiments of a modern critic, whose judgment on the subject of spurious inscriptions will not be disputed :

MAFFEI, in the introduction to the third book, c. 1. p. 51. of his admirable, though unfiniched work de Arte Criticâ Lapidaria, uses these words : Inscriptionum Græce loquentium commentitias, fi cum Latinis comparemus, deprehendi paucas : neque enim ullum omnino eft, in tanta debacchantium falfariorum libidine, monumenti genus, in quod ii fibi minus licere putaverint. Argumento eff, pauciflimas usque in hanc diem ab eruditis viris, et in hoc literaTum genere plurimum verfatis rejectas fe, falfique damnatas.

We bere finith our exceptions. Much praise is due to the Author of the Differtation for the learning and candour fo con{picuous throughout his work. Even those who are most prejudiced against his hypothesis, will read his book with pleasure, as well for the taste and erudition displayed in treating the main question, as for the entertaining discuffion of incidental matters. If we seem to have affumed more of the style and tone of controversy than fuits the impartiality of judges, we plead in excuse, that we intended only to animate, in fome degree, a subject, wbich, to the generality of readers, must appear dry and tedious. If the Author Tould pay any attention to the hints which we have thrown out, and publish the result of his thoughts on them, we shall coolly reconsider his arguments,

Refellere fine iracundia, et refelli sine pertinacia parati. In the emendations of the 11th and 78th lines of the Inscription, the genius of the Greek Janguage requires us to read, Παναθηναια and ανέβη, for Παναθηναικον And ανεβησε. Ρor..η.

ART. X. The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, D. D. containing, Cre

dibility of the Gospel History; Jewish and Heathen Testimonies ; History of Heretics; and his Sermons and Tracts ; with general Chronological Tables, and copious Indexes. To the first Volume is prefixed the Life of the Author, by Andrew Kippis, D.D. F. R. S. and S. A. In ii Vols. 8vo. Price to Subscribers 31. 35. in Boards. Johnson. 1788.

E heartily congratulate the Public on the appearance of

this COMPLETE EDITION of the Works of Dr. Lardner, who bas not improperly been complimented as "the Prince



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of modern Divines,” and whole chief work cannot fail of being held in the highest repute as long as the credibility of the Gospel Thall be deemed worthy of demonftration. Uniting to an intimate knowlege of antiquity, candour, good sense, and the most sacred regard for truth, he has laboured with success in winnowing the chaff of spurious evidence from those genuine and solid teftimonies which prove the verity of the Christian Scriptures, He had none of that weak credulity which refts satisfied with Aimsy. forgeries, pious frauds, and artful interpolations, or of that wretched timidity which trembles at removing those reeds and ftraws with which the ignorant and fuperftitious have endeavoured, and the ariful pretended, to prop up the fortress of truth. Hence his writings are eminently valuable. None have been more highly or more juftiy praised." “ It was the frequent saying of a very learned person, that if he were sentenced to imprisonment for seven years, he would not desire to take any books with him into his confinement, besides the works of Jora tin ani Lardner *."

The leveral pieces contained in the eleven volumes before us, and now first collected together, have separately been published, at different times ; most of them by Dr. Lardner himself, and some few after his decease; and accounts have been given of them in our Review, which may easily be found by consulting our General Index t. A republication of them was now become necessary. His great work on the Credibility of the Gospel History, in 17 volumes octavo, was become very scarce, and told for as much as all his works originally cost, unbound; and some of his tracts were not to be purchased. These latter will have the recommendation of novelty; especially the Essay on the Mofaic Account of the Creation 6nd Fall of Man, almost the whole impreffion of which was luft, in consequence of the misfortunes of the bookseller.

Nothing, however, is absolutely new in this edition, except the Life of the Author, written by Dr. Kippis, which, notwithftanding it can furnith no great amusement to the mere lovers of anecdote, will be etteemed by all rational Christians as a proper tribute to the memory of Dr. Lardner, and an acceptable addition to the mass of British biography. Sentiments of esteem and veneration, combining with natural curiosity, prompt us to enquire into the history of those men by whose writings we have

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* Memoirs of T. Hollis, Esq. vol. i. p. 254.

+ Our first account of the Credibility is in vol. iv. p. 18. of the Review. Some account of the Jewish and Heathen Teftimonies (entitled in our Index On the Truth of the Christian Religion) is to be found in vol. xxxii. p. 1.; xxxiv. p. 31. and p. 430.; and vol. xxxvi. p. 270. The last work of Dr. Lardner's noticed by us, was his History of Heretics, fee vol, lxiv. p. 33


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