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aud prudence profess for each other, the strength of which is so great as to induce them to speak of each other upon all occasions with ex. act and impartial justice; frequently to visit each other, if near, at which times they give their opinions on politics and the affairs of the neighbourhood without fear of any inconvenient circumstances arising from the confidence and freedom with which they speak; or if at a distance to keep up an intercourse by letter at least twice a year : nay so far may it operate in the breast of the wiseft man, that should his friend want money to make a purchase, complete a sum to lay out upon a mortgage, or for any other advantageous purpose, he may, upon receiving his bond and security, be prevailed upon to lend it him, provided he has it by him, or can raise it without much trouble or loss. And should an account of the death of the one be brought to the other, it might probably make him grave for a whole day, except some business or party in which he was engaged obliged him to throw off so improper and useless a propensity. This is not the kind of friendship of which I am speaking, but that lively, sweet, and confidential affection by which two, three, or more (for there is no cause for confining it to a particular number) sensible, virtuous, and amiable women are united. I say women, for in spite of vulgar prejudice, or the little pert satire of the witlings, I aver that women are as capable of perfect and lafting friendship, nay more so than the meni' ... The happiness which results from warm and tender friendship is more sweet, interesting, and to complete all, lasting, than any other which we can ever hope to possess; and were a just account of anxiety and satisfaction to be made out, would, it is probable, in the eye of rational estimation, far exceed the so-much boasted pleasures of love *.'

« Madam !
You have a roble and a true conceit

Of god-like amity.And it is our sincereft wish that yourself, and every other person who can feel and acknowlege its excellence, may long experience the great, the unspeakable blessings which it has to bestow !

A.B. HORTICULTURE. Art. 22. The Universal Gardener's Kalendar, and System of practical

Gardening; displaying the completeft general Directions for performing all the various practical Works and Operations necessary in every Month of the Year, agreeably to the present most improved successful Methods; with a comprehensive Display of the general System of Gardening in all its different Branches. Comprehending the Kitchen Garden, Fruit Garden, Pleasure Ground, Flower Garden, Shrubbery, Plantations and Nursery, Green House, Hot House, and Forcing Houses, &c. By John Aber. crombie, upwards of forty Years practical Gardener. 496 Pages.

55. bound. Stockdale. 1789.

I 2mo.

* It must not be forgotten, however, that true love is perfe& friendship.

Art.

Art. 23. The complete Kitchen Gardener, and Hot Bed Forcer; with

the thorough practical Management of Hot Houses, Fire Walls, and Forcing Houses, and the improved Modern Culture of the Pinery Stoves, and Pine Apples; being a thorough practical Dir. play of these moft capital Branches of Gardening in their general Culture, and agreeable to the present greatly improved Modern Process; whereby that most importantly useful District the Kitchen Garden, and all its Appurtenances of Hot Beds, Hot Houses, Hot Walls, Forcing Houses, Pinery Stoves, &c. and the Culture of their leveral various Productions in superior Perfection and greatest Abundance, are fully explained in a Manner never before done for general Instruction, as requiring a particular distin& Explanation; and now first completely accomplished, from the Re. sult of above forty Years daily practical Experience and Observation. By John Abercrombie, Author of Every Man his own Gardener, commonly called Mawe's Gardener's Kalendar; but the Work

of J. A. only. izmo. 509 Pages. 55. bound. Stockdale. 178y. Art. 24. The Garden Vade Mecum, or Compendium of general Gar

dening; and descriptive Display of the Plants, Flowers, Shrubs,

Trees and Fruits, and general Culture: comprising a systematic Display and Description of the several Districts of Gardening and Plantations, under separate Heads; giving Intimations of the Ucility, general or particular Plans, Dimensions, Soil and Situation, &c. and of the various respective Plants, Flowers, Shrubs, Trees and Fruits, proper for, and arranged in each District; with general Descriptions of their Nature of Growth, Temperature, principal and particular Uses, Methods of Propagation and general Culture, in their respective Garden Departments: conlisting of the Flower Garden, Pleasure Ground, Shrubbery and Plantations, Fruit Garden and Kitchen Garden, Green House and Hot House. By John Abercrombie. Small 12mo. 585 Pages. 45. bound. Stockdale. 1789.

As the three last mentioned works are all on the same subje&t, written by the same hand, and naturally require a joint confideration, we have placed them together; and, as we cannot descend to particular examinations, we have exhibited the titles at large, to give their author the utmost latitude of describing their contents in his own very diffusive manner.

When Philip Miller, the father of modern gardening, compiled his great work, the Gardener's Dictionary, he afterwarde published a fmail necessary compendium, pointing out the operations in the garden, through every month in the year. This was a most useful remembrancer, not so much for the professional gardener, who could not be supposed to need it, as for private family use where small gardens are cultivated. When he told us what to do, had he also added brief directions how it was to be done, inttead of loading his work with monthly dry lists of fruits, flowers, and herbs then in season ; we should not loon have needed another Gardener's Calendar. But in this instance, a litle author-craft appeared; he wanted to make his Calendar introduce his Dictionary; and, therefore, where parti. cular instructions were necessary, he referred to his Dictionary for

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them. But this craft went no farther; he preserved too much pro. fessional dignity to exhaust himself through the press: he did not hash out and dress up the same things in different modes and forms, and expose himself to the reproach of grasping at undue literary emolu.

It were well if his successors, who arrive at eminence in the same line, preserved the like respect for che public and for themselves; but by the number of Mr. Abercrombie's publications, and the ra. pidity of those now before us, the prefaces to which are all dated within the short space of four months; we must conclude that he bas quilted gardening to cultivate the fields of literature, and a moit afli. duous cultivator he is; for, not contented with productions in season, he has hewn us that he perfectly understands the nature of forcing..

Some years ago, a Gardener's Calendar appeared, under the name of Mawe, and others, which is the firit in the list below; to which the sole claim is now made by Mr. A. and he has since twice gone over the same ground again in his own name.

We thall not pretend to enquire into his reasons for fo repeatedly asserting this claim: But the first of the articles now before us, being his third Gardener's Calendar, and being styled an Universal System of Praétical Gardening, the fair inference is, that he has exhautted the subject. Why then does he obtrude on us any more general systems of gardening? The obvious answer must be, because the more books he can seil, che better. Accordingly, behold the Complete Kitchen Gardener; and bad the Universal Gardener's Calendar been a book of bulky size, and high price, so much of it as was limited to the kitchen garden, might have plausibly appeared in a small size and at an ealy price. But why should we give as much for culinary use only, as will furnish us with an universal system of gardening. And passing this over; both these being pocket volumes, why are we also offered a Garden Vade Mecum? The matter must be substantially the same, only differently modified by literary ingenuity. The first is ftyled an Universal Syfilem of practical Gardening; and this latt, A Compendium of jeneral Gardening Thus much appears on the face of the title pages;

when the books, we find the Calendar so far an improvement on the plan of Miller, as to give more particular directions with the injunctions, under the respective departments specified in the title page. He informs us in the preface to this work, that " the numerous occur.

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* Every Man his own Gardener. By Mawe, &c. Rev. vol. xxxvi, p. 484.

Dictionary of Gardening and Botany. lix. 69. The Garden Mushroom, its Nature and Culcivation. lxii. 173. British Fruit Gardener. Ixii. 290. Compleat Forcing Gardener. Ixiv. 473. Compleat Wall Tree Pruner. Ixxi. 475. Propagation and Botanical Arrangement of Plants. lxxi. 475. Gardener's Pocket Dictionary. lxxvi. 359, Gardener's Daily Allstant, for every Month in the Year. lxxviii, 263.

To which add the three publications above!

ring improvements could be more eligibly introduced in the Calendar order within a moderate compass, shan by any other method of arrangesent, it was adopted accordingly. In the preface to his Kitchen Gardener, he is of another opinion ; for he there declares, that by blending the culture of kitchen plants among others in the general business, the thorough practical culture could not readily be iraced, or any particular part thereof, when wanted to consule on any neces. sary occasion, nor in that order of arranging the matter, could the complete general culture be effcctually displayed in the requisite practical manner.' Accordingly, in this work all the different species are displayed, each under a diftinét or separate head.' To this, an advocate for the Calendar form, in such a manual, might reply, that when the culture of any particular plant is fought for, it will be at some time of the year or other: if in March, the Calendar will tell all that is wanted at that time; if in October, it directs so much as is wanted ac that season: we cannot want the whole year at once! More extensive and connected information, we presume, would be fought for, and found, in his Gardener's Dictionary. We confess, that the Calendar form appears to us the belt calculated for general use.

The third article, or Garden Vade Mecum, is the first, or Gardener's Calendar, thrown into a different form. We have now the management of the flower garden, shrubbery, fruit garden, kitchen garden, green house, and hot house, treated under these general heads; and the culture of particular articles is more loosely given, by clafling such species as admit of the same mode of treatment. Why the subject is now thus arranged, we have no farther account, than that it . is intended as a general introduction to the systematic knowledge of the several different districts, and that of the various plants, &c. relating thereto.' This knowlege, we imagine, is already possessed, in å greater or smaller degree, by every man who knows how to handle a spade; and if the author imagines that an uninformed man may become a good gardener, in all these departments, by written instructions, it is certainly a much easier way than by forty years practice: yet we believe no gentleman having ground extenfive enough to be thus divided, can safely confide in a man who is not a regularly bred gardener.

We do not impeach the merit of either of these performances singly, but we cannot see the need of all of them; and considering them as the produce of one pen, we think they interfere with cach other. However, Mr. A. has now writien enough to eltablish his merit as a practical gardener; certainly more than enough to assist those who practise on a small scale for family use and amule.nent; we wish him, therefore, all that honourable repose to which forty years exercise of his profesional duties, and his literary labours, lo july inuitle him: but we must add, that this repuse may happen to be diiturbed by doing too much with his pen. N.

BOTANY.
Art. 25. Thirty-eight Plates, with Explanations; intended to illus-

trate Linnæus's System of Vegetables, and particularly adapred to
the Letters on the Elements of Botany. By Thomas Martyn, B.D.

F.R.S.

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F.R.S. Professor of Botany at Cambridge. 8vo. 72 Pages. gs. plain, and 18s. coloured. White. 1788.

Some persons who have approved Profeffor Martyn's translation of Rousseau's Letters on Botany, with additions, wished that the subject might be farther illustrated with figures. In compliance with these wishes, he has published the present volume, which, though an entire work of itself, is to be considered as a supplement to the Letters formerly published.

Six plates are given, to illustrate fix letters on the most remarkable natural classes ; the rest explain the artificial classes of Linné, except one which exhibits figures of various kinds of nectaries.

The figures are very accurate representations of the different parts · of the flower and fruit, especially those that constitute the classical character, or are any way remarkable on account of their form or ficuation. R...... m.

BRITISH FISHERIE S. Art. 26. Observations on the Herring Fisheries, on the North and

East Coasts of Scotland. Es with piain Rules proposed for curing, and for supplying the London Market with White Herrings. By Lewis M‘Culloch, many Years employed in furnishing the Merchants of London for Exportation. Svo. pp. 44. Is. 6d. Richardfan, &c. 1788.

Mr. M*Culloch chiefly bends his attention toward illustrating a branch of the important subject of the British fisheries that has not been adverted to in so particular a manner by any of those who have hitherto offered their sentiments the public: viz. the circumstances which are chiefly necessary to be attended to by those who mean to fupply the London markets with herrings. He has chosen, with great propriety, as a motto, the following line from Pope,

" What can we reason, but from what we know ?” And he fhews him felf particularly well acquainted with the subject which he undertakes to illustrate. He itrongly recommends the buss fishery at sea, in the Dutch mode; and shews the great importance of curing the fiib in a proper manner, and sending them to market at a right time. His directions with regard to the first are partly copied from the practice of the Dutch, and are partly suggested by his own observations and experience; which last, we are told, has been very extensive in this branch of business.

This is a plain useful tract, which every man who has an intencion of taking a concern in the eastern fishery thould carefully study: is will abundantly repay his pains.

A.n.....n.

NAVIGATION, &c. Art. 27. A Report on the practical Utility of Kenneth M-Culloch's in

proved Sia Compasses, founded on eighteen Months Experience of those Instruments on board one of his Majesty's Cruizing Frigates in the Channel of England. Small 8vo. pp. 14. 1789.

Whatever invention tends to improve the practice of navigation ought to be favourably received by every British reader. In this point of view, Mr. M'Culloch scems to deserve the approbation of his coun

krymen,

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