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tempted to fancy him one of the pilots of the ancient Greeks, and to suppose that he was at the fiege of Troy, and that one of the fabulous deities has restored him to life, to prove to us the truth of the everlasting voyages * of Homer's heroes.-We give up, at leait for the present, all hope of reaching Crete. Wearied with fruitless struggles againit oppofing fortune, our Captain has just turned his prow toward Asia Minor.'

Our traveller was at length driven to Caftel Roffo, an island fituated on the west side of a semicireular bay on the coast of Caramania, or the ancient Lycia. The poverty of the island, and the misery of its inhabitants, can scarcely be equalled. On the east side of this bay, opposite to the island, M. Savary found the ruins of a once magnificent city. The firtt object which attracted his attention, on approaching the land, was a vast amphitheatre about 70 feet high, and with 80 rows of lears, one raised above the other, lloping; it is built with beautiful stones, and with such folidity as to be proof against the ravages of time, the arena alone having suffered by the violence of the waves. Beyond this amphitheatre, M. Savary found a variety of ruins; among which he more minutely describes those of a spacious building, that appears, from the huge columns, parily overthrown and partly retaining their erect pofition, from the thick walls half demolished, highly finished capitals, and broken frage ments of elegant cornices, to have been the remains of a temple, or other magnificent edifice consecrated to a deity. At the extremity of these vaft ruins, our traveller found tombs in perfect preservation, many of them surrounded with columns fupporting domes of great solidity. We thall not, however, anticipate the curious reader, whom we refer to the book for the ample description of the deplorable condition of this once rich and flourithing city. Its harbour destitute of ships, iis maynificent theatre without spectators, those piles of ruins, thole tombs, despoiled even of the bodies which they contained, inspire the traveller with curious reflections on the viciffitude of fortune, the ravages of time, and the cruelty and avarice of plundering conquerors. After adducing many arguments that this city must have been destroyed by an earthquake, and perhaps subsequently plundered by the Túiks, M. Savary enters into a long and learned investigation to determine that these ruins are those of the ancient Patara ; famous on account of its temple of Apollo, which was as much celebrated for its riches and the respect paid to its oracles as that of Delphos; he supports his proofs by quo. tations from Strabo, Pomponius Mela, and Livy, not forgetting that Horace once fung the Patarean Apollo.

From the coast of Lycia, M. Savary went to Rhodes : in his paffage chither, nothing material occurred, except bis meeting • The other tranflation fays endless wanderings. Сс 2


with prodigious flocks of swans and cranes on their passage to Arabia. This circumstance astonished us! Cranes certainly visit Egypt in the winter ; but we do not recollect that swans have ever been deemed birds of passage. The cranes, too, are described as swimming, which seems eontrary to nature :-yet we cannot pretend to dispute the fact.

Contrary winds driving the vessel once more on the coast of Afia, into the Gulph of Macri, M. Savary here saw the ruins of Telmissus, which he describes, together with the adjacent country.

With some difficulty, our traveller at length reached Rhodes, the ancient state of which he amply describes; he thews also how the ambition of the Romans, the degeneracy of the monarchs of the lower empire, the fanaticism of the Arabs, and destructive earthquakes, have alternately laid waste this once beautiful and rich island. The despotism of the Turks succeed. ing these calamities, bas utterly destroyed the remaining monuments of science and of art. The present town is built on the fice of the ancient city, occupying only the fourth part of its extent, and poffeffing no remarkable antiquities. The temples and theatres are levelled with the ground. Coloffufies, smaller ftatues, and paintings, have all been destroyed, or carried off by avaricious barbarians. Instead of spacious and regularly dis. pored streets, our traveller describes narrow and winding lanes; instead of a fertile country, a desolate island ; and instead of a free, happy, and enlightened nation, he describes a llavish, miserable, and ignorant race.

In his passage from Rhodes, M. Savary visited the idand of Symé, famous for its filery of sponges, which is the only support of its wretched inhabitants; he says,

• Men, women and children, all know how to dive, and plunge into the waters in search of the only patrimony bestowed on them by nature. The men, especially, are inimitable in this dangerous art; they throw themselves into the sea, and dive to a very great depth; but they frequently strain themselves by retaining their breath too long, and, on coming out of the water, often vomit great quantities of blood. Sometimes they are in danger of destruction from the monsters of the deep. The knife they carry in their hands would be but an inadequate weapon for their defence; but accus. comed perfectly to distinguish objects through that pellucid element, as soon as they discover the voracious fish, they shoot up with the greatest rapidity from a prodigious depth, and in an infant are in their boat.

Bad weather detaining our traveller a few days in the harbour of Symé, he made an excursion into the country; but as nothing material occurs here, we shall follow him on his voyage, buf. feted by contrary winds, driven from island to island, and seeking Candia, as Ulysses fought Ithaca. The Greek sailors suspected

the ship to be enchanted ; and in order to break the enchantment, a priest was brought on board. As a specimen of this peculiar superstition, we hall transcribe M. Savary's description of the ceremony:

• He (the priest] * is now come on board, arrayed in the facer. dotal habit. In one hand he ca es a censer, in the other a brush + for sprinkling holy water. A long stole hangs down his black gown. The length of his beard, the contraction of his brows, and his conical cap, make him appear not unlike a magician himself. A young child I walks before him, carrying a baion full of holy water. The grave priest is just begun to besprinkle our apartments, without sparing any of the assistants 5. He has bestowed his benedictions on all on board, the men, the masts, and the ropes. He has repeated a power|| of prayers and forms, to exorcise Satan, and dissipate his wicked enchantments. With his censer in his hand, and burning in it fragrant aromatics, he has gone through every part of the ship. Each of us has had his share; for each has been smoked with the perfumes issuing from the sacred censer.—After the ceremony was finished, the priest held out a little bason, into which we put some pieces of money. He then took his leave, wishing us a prosperous voyage, and great happiness. The failors, thinking themselves now disenchanted, seem quite happy. Can they not perceive, that their own unkilfulness in the art of navigation is the only charm which retards their progress? No, doubtleis; such fagacity supposes an extent of knowledge far beyond what they possess. Superstition is the daughter of ignorance. She is as old as the first of the human race; nor will our latest pofterity survive her.'

The unbewitched sailors proceeded on their voyage. Contrary winds, however, drove them to Caros, where our traveller describes a happy, though not a rich people. Casos is subje& to the Turks, but they dare not inbabit it, because it has no fort; the people therefore enjoy a tranquillity and liberty almoft unknown in the Archipelago.

Sailing from Casos, M. Savary, at length, arrived at Candia. His description of this island forms an abstract of its history from the earlieft times; containing an account of its first inhabitants, their government and manners; the explication of those parts of its history that are involved in fable, and the mysteries of the heathen mythology; the revolutions which it hach undergone, and the state in which it is at present.

M. Savary is not less attentive to the manners and appearance of the inhabitants, than to the other circumstances which

* This extraet is from the first translation.

+ The other translation says a velel. The French word is goupillon, a bruth.

1 The other translation fays a boy. $ Byeftanders.
H i. e. A great number.




we have already mentioned. The following general description of the Cretan ladies, which follows phat of the men, will give our readers no unsavourable idea of the author's gallantry and attachment to the fair fex:

In a country where strength and dignity distinguish the men, you may well suppose, Madam, that grace and beauty adorn the

Their dress does not restrain the growth of any part of their bodies, and their hape therefore assumes those admirable pro. portions with which the hand of the Creator has graced his faireft workmanship on earth. They are not all handsome or charming. But some of them are beautiful, particularly the Turkish ladies. In general, the Cretan women have a rising throat, a neck gracefully rounded, black eyes, sparkling with animation, a small mouih, a fine nole, and cheeks delicately coloured with the fresh vermillion of health. But the oval of their form is different from that of Eusopeans, and the character of their beauty is peculiar to their own nation. I would not presume to draw a parallel between Cretan and European beauty. Beauty ever merits our praise and homage. the sentiments which animate the heart, and display themselves in the features and complexions of beauty, are what will ever determine its comparative excellence in the eyes of the man of sense and virtue.'

Afier a few more remarks, he adds,

• Such, Madam, are the reflections of a traveller, who, by comparing the various opinions and sentiments of different nations, endeavours to divest himself of prejudices, and thinks, that Nature alone, untortured by affectation, and unspoiled by art, is truly beau. tiful. But he does not presume to set an high value on bis reflections; and hopes you will pardon him for presuming to offer them.'

Leaving Candia, M. Savary proposed going to Conftantinople, but hearing that the plague was raging in that city, he changed his route, and describes, in a few words, the island of Melos, with which the volume before us closes.

The author proposed to describe other islands which he visited in the Archipelago, but dving before he had put the last hand to the remainder of his letters, the editor has not given then to the public.

Mr. Elliot's tranflation wants an Index, which that for Meft. Robinsons possesses; this is counterbalanced by a very sensible Preface to the former, as we before observed, wbile ihe latter wants this advantage. Farther we can not carry the compan rison, as we have not the original at hand.


* From Mr. Elliot's translation,


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Art. III. Obfervations upon the Liturgy. With a Proposal for its

Reform, upon the Principles of Christianity, as profesied and taught by the Church of England; and an Attempt to reconcile the Doctrines of the Angels' Apostacy and perpetual Punishment, Man's Fall and Redemption, and the Incarnation of the Son of God, to our Conceptions of the Divine Nature and Attributes. By a Layman of the Church of England *, late an under Secretary of State f. To which is added, the Journals of the American Convention, appointed to frame an Ecclefiaftical Conftitution, and prepare a Liturgy for the Episcopal Churches in the United States. 8vo. 212 Pages. 3 s. Boards. Debrett. 1789.

HATEVER may be objected to our book of common

prayer, it is, on the whole, an excellent formula of public devotion ; and might be compared to a garden, well laid out,' and adorned with many beautiful plants; but there is no garden which does not produce weeds, from which it should, from time to time, be cleared. Accordingly, it is the opinion of many judicious observers, that the heads and guardians of our ecclefiaftical establishment might do infinite honour to themselves, and render the cause of Christianity the greatest service, were they, for this purpose, to set the hoe of reformation to work; and there is, perhaps, much reason to apprehend, that Ihould they hold out much longer against the wishes of an enlightened age, and refuse to make those reforms which are daily becoming more and more obvious and necessary, their inflexibility will at last produce the most destructive consequences.

Dr. Priestley thinks that the progress of free enquiry will terminate in the total overthrow of the establishment; bis prophetic eye sees, or he imagines, a vast quantity of gunpowder accumulating, grain by grain, under the very foundations of our ecclefiaftical system, which, by fome accidental (park, will violently explode ; and overthrow, at once, Archbishoprics, Bishoprics, Deaneries, Prebends, Canonries, Archdeaconries, &c. We do not look with complacency for the accomplishment of this prediction ; nor do we wish to be spectators of the confusion which it must occafion; and as the dignitaries of the church muft with it much less than others can be supposed to do, is it not rather strange that they do not endeavour to strengthen their establithment, by making its articles and public service more conformable to reason, and to scripture; the great standard of all ? Do the cloud-cap'd cathedrals and the gorgeous palaces of our bishops reft on the Athanafian Creed? Would not its removal from the Liturgy strengthen rather than thake their foundations? Judicious amendments may contribute to preserve, but cannot, we should

• William Knox, Esq. + In the late American Department.


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