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As Mr. Magellan is a foreigner, a criticism on bis language might be thought improper ; yet we cannot close this article without remarking that, in some cases, the English reader will meet with difficulties that may perplex him. We will mention two or three instances. In the course of the work we frequently meet with the word Dalarne, as a province in Sweden, where certain minerals are native ; at page 361 we are told ' fal fontanum is found in the province of Dal;' and in pages 118, 119, 237, and others, certain minerals are described as natives of Dale. carlia. Now Dalarne, Dal, and Dalecarlia, are one and the same province. In page 123, Crystals and Crisals occur ; this may be the fault of the printer. In page 287 the word prealable is used: this is a French word, and means foregoing, or rather, previous. Cold sort and red fort iron, though used by our smiths, &c. do not clearly convey the ideas of the original Swedich Kall
. breckt and Röd-breckt; this defect muft be attributed to Mr. Engestrom.
These blemishes, however, are of no great consequence :
Literature and the Fine Arts. By William Rutherford, D.D.
FTER all the details and abridgments which have been
given of ancient history, there is ftill ample scope for inquiry and speculation : not indeed for the purpose of ascertaining the truth, the order, or the date of facts;-on these researches learned diligence has perhaps been employed with as much fuccess as is to be expected ;- but with the design of exhibiting interesting views of ancient events, inanners, and opinions, and deducing from them such observations and conclusions, as admit of an useful application. Several modern writers have attempted this union of history and philosophy; but few, in our opinion, more successfully than the author of the work now before us. From the imperfect and often obscure accounts of the most remote period of human society, which are scattered through the writings of the ancients, Dr. Rutherford, with much good sense and strength of judgment, has brought into one connected view, such particulars as are most deserving of attention. Without burdening his reader with the detail of critical investigation, he has given the result of his own inquiries, in a masterly sketch, in which probable events are happily detached from fable, and
the relation of historical incidents is judiciously combined with a view of the progress of government, religion, science, arts, manners, and customs, in each country. The whole is written with strength, perspicuity, and elegance.
This first volume treats of the affairs of Egypt, Assyria, Perha, Phænicia, and Judea, and of those of Greece, to the close of the first Persian war.
The following account of the extension of the trade of Pheenicia will serve to Thew how much may be done by a judicious sele Aion and arrangement of materials:
• The history of this people furnishes a remarkable proof of the wonders which industry can perform, and of the opulence to which commerce can raise a nation which applies to it with ardour.
• The first voyages which they performed were in the Mediterranean, of which they frequented all the ports. Coafting along the Ihores of this sea, they made settlements in the isles of Cyprus and Rhodes, and extending their navigation, paffed succeslively into Greece, Thrace, Italy, Sicily, 'and Sardinia. Penetrating into the extremities of Europe, they visited the Gauls, discovered the southern part of Spain, and gave a name to that kingdom, which it still retains ..
* Hitherto their navigation, like that of all the ancient nations, had been confined to the Mediterranean ; and the south of Spain was the boundary of their voyages. Pasling the southern point of that country, the Phænician sailors perceived that the Mediterranean communicated by a narrow channel with another sea. The dread of encountering unknown latitudes, and the perils which presented themselves in crofling this unexplored and formidable passage, long deterred the Phænician pilots : but incited by the love of gain, and encouraged by their perpetual successes, about 1250 years before the Christian era they ventured beyond the boundaries of ancient navigation, and pasting the straits of Gades, entered the ocean. Success crowned the boldness of the enterprise. They landed on the western coait of Spain. This first voyage was followed by others ; and the Phænicians soon sent colonies into the country, founded cities chere, and formed permanent settlemenis. Their lucrative traffic to these regions induced them to erect, on an isle, known at present by the name of Cadiz, a fortified place, which they might employ as a repository or warehouse for the Spanish trade. To lecure the poffeffion of that ille, they built a city, to which, from the purposes of irs erection, they gave the name of Cadiz t.
• The advantages which the Phoenicians derived from this trade were sudden and extraordinary. Spain presented the same spectacle to its first vificants, that America presented to the Spaniards in the fixteenth century. The ancient Spaniards, like the Americans, were deftitute of arts and industry. Their country abounded with gold and flver; but the inhabitants, unacquainted with the value of these
*Spaniza, which the Romans have changed into Hifpania, and we into Spain, signifies, in the Hebrew language, listle differene from the Phænician, full of rabbits.' t Refuge, inclosure.'
precious metals, applied them to common uses. The Phenicians availed themselves of this ignorance. In exchange for oil, glass, and trinkers, so much coveted by barbarians, they received such a quantity of silver, that their ships could not contain the treasure.
They were obliged to take out the lead with which their anchors were loaded, and put the filver in its place.
• The wealth which the Phænicians drew from Spain was not confined to the precious metals. Wax, honey, vermilion, iron, lead, copper, and above all, tin, were valuable articles of traffic. This last metal was unknown to other nations will it was introduced by the Phænicians.
• Spain was not the only country beyond the pillars of Hercules into which the Phænicians had penetrated. Accustomed to the navigation of the ocean, they extended their discoveries to the left of the straits of Gades, as far as to the right; and visiting the western coasts of Africa, formed settlements there, a little after the Trojan
• While the Phænicians possessed the trade of the North and the Weft, they drew to themselves the commerce of the South and the East, which is said to have been opened by the Egyptians. Having become masters of several commodious harbours towards the bottom of the Arabian Gulph, they eftablished a regular intercourse with Arabia and the continent of India on the one hand, and with the eastern coast of Africa on the other. They landed the valuable cargoes which they brought from these opulent regions at Elach, the fafest harbour in the Red Sea towards the north. Thence they were carried by land to Rhinocolora, the nearest port in the Mediterra. nean to the Arabian Gulph; and being re-shipped in chat harbour, were transported to the Phænician capital. Thus the wealth of Per. fia, India, Africa, and Arabia, centered in Tyre, and thence was distributed over the western parts of the world.
• In order to secure the commerce of these countries which they had discovered or visited, the Phoenicians founded colonies and cities, in the most commodious situations, as far as their voyages extended. About eighty years after the Trojan war they founded the city of Gades, on a small island near the weltern coast of Andalusia, and soon afterwards those of Adrymetum, Lepris, Utica, and Copía, in Africa. In their voyages to Greece, Thrace, and Italy, they built cities and planted colonies in Citrium, Thera, Argos, Thebes, Samothrace, and Thafus. Soon after this we find Phænician colonies on every island of the Mediterranean, in the Balearic isles, in Sardinia, Corfca, Sicily, Malta, and many parts of the northern coasts of Africà The revolution which the conquelts of Joshua made in the countries of Canaan was favourable to the colonization of the Phænicians. After the irruption and devastation of the Hebrew tribes, the greater part of the arcient in habitants of Palæstine, finding themselves threatened with immediate destruction, endeavoured to save themselves by flight. Sidon offered them an afylum ; but the territory of that city not fuffi ing to support the multitude of exiles, they were under a necefiity of exploring onknown countries, and seeking new fettlements. The Phenicians lent them their hips, and employed this accession of subjects to extend their trade and to people their distant
cities. Hence that vast number of colonies which, taking their departure from Phænicia, soon after diffused themselves through all the kirts of Africa and countries of Europe.
• No event is more remarkable in the Phænician history, than the foundation of a new state on the African coast about 890 years before the Christian era. The foundation and growth of Carthachadta *, or the New Town, have been adorned by poetical fiction ; but its consequent greatness made an important figure in the history of the world. Situated on a bold projection of the African coast
, in the very center of the Mediterranean, Carthage comprehended within her view the East, as well as the West, and embraced, by the extent of her commerce, all the seas, and all the countries of the known world. An excellent port offered a secure asylum to ships : the natural fertility of the adjacent soil; the happy site of the town, surrounded by a clufter of islands and countries conveniently fituated for commerce ; the adventurous fpirit of the merchants and mariners ; the kill and industry of the artisans; together with the wisdom of the government, which was never maken by seditions, nor oppressed by tyranny, till the later periods of the commonwealth ; all contri. buted to the sudden increase and rapid improvement of the Carthaginian colony. From the enlargement of its territory it became a feparate state, which foon rivalled and afterwards furpasied the mother country; and, in a duration of seven hundred years, comprehended within its dominion the finest portion of Africa, as well as a great part of Spain, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, with the Balearic, and the Fortunate Islands.
' From the enumeration of the countries to which the Phænicians traded, of the cities which they built, and the colonies which they planted, in the various and distant parts of the world, an idea may be formed of the greatness and extent of their commerce. As in ancient times the nations of the earth had little intercourse or connection with each other, the Phænicians were employed as factors and carriers to all their neighbours, and became masters of all the trade that was carried on in the known world. Their hips conveyed the productions of every climate; and the empire of the sea was in their possession. Other nations applied to them when any great maritime enterprise or distant expedition was to be undertaken. The fieers which Solomon fitted out, to fail from the Red Sea to Ophir and
Tarshish, probably on the eastern coalt of Ethiopia, were conducted by Phænician pilots, who had been accustomed to visit these countries before the time of Solomon. It was to Phoenician mariners that Necho, King of Egypt, above 610 years before Christ, gave the extraordinary cominillion to circumnavigate Africa. That prince sent a Phenician fleet from the borders of the Red Sea, with injunc. tions to keep along the African coaits, to make the tour of ihem, 20d to return to Egypt by entering the Mediterranean at the Pillars of Hercules, or Straits of Gibralcar. The Phænicians taking their departure from the Red Sea, entered the Southern Ocean, and contantly followed the coafts. After having employed cwo seasons in this navigation, they doubled the southern promontory of Africa,
* « Abbreviated into Karchedon by the Greeks, and pronounced Carthago by the Romags.'
and arriving at the Pillars of Hercules, entered the Mediterranean, and reached the mouths of the Nile in the third year of their voyage.'
'In a work so well execured as the present, to search for trifling inaccuracies would be fastidious: the author will easily correct them in a subsequent edition. We shall only remark*, that it would have much increaied the value of his book, if Dr R. had been less sparing of his references. Decisive affertions, on points which have beon the subject of dispute, or concerning which an inquisitive reader may be fupposed to wish for farther information, ought to be supported by authorities,
ART. IX. The Parian Chronicle. (Concluded from our Review
for October, p. 357.) ICENDUM eft mihi ad ea quæ a te diela funt, fed ita, nihil
ut afirmem ; quæram omnia, dubitans plerumq; et mihi ipfe diffidens.
Having already given a concise account of this learned and ingenious work, we thall briefly state such doubts as have arisen in our minds, on reviewing Mr. Robertson's arguments ; and submit them to his impartial consideration. If we before omitted any observation of moment, from a de fire of contracting our article into as small a compass as possible, we shall now endeavour to compensare for the neglect.
Objection 1. The charallers have no certain or unequivocal marks of antiquity. This seems rather to be an answer to a defender of the inicription, than an objection. If a zealous partizan of the marble should appeal to its characters and orthography, as decisive proofs of its being genuine, it would be proper enough to answer, that these circunstances afford no certain criterion of authenticity. But in this word certain, sculks an unlucky ambiguity. If it means demonstrative, it must be allowed that no inscription can be proved to be certainly genuine, from these appearances; but if it means no more than highly probable, many inscriptions poffefs fufficient invernal evidence to give their claims this degree of certainty. The true question is, Has not the Pasian Chronicle every mark of antiquity that can be expected in a monument claim ng the age of 2000 years? The letters l' and I are, by Mr. R.'s own conteflion, such as occur in genuine inscrip'ions, and to say in answer, that an impoftor might copy the forms of these letters from o'her infcriptions, is already to suppose the infeription forged, before it is rendered probable by ar. gument. The learned autoor of the Differtation seems to betray fome doubt of his own conclufion; for he adds, p. 56, that the antiquity of an inscription can never be proved by the mere form
* Premising that, in the extraćt here given, we have omitted va. rious references made by Dr. R.