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Tume to judge ; but must consider his royal mafter's confidence and friendship as the most ample testimony in his favour. M. BUTTNER represents him as a strict observer of military discipline, and as rather severe in enforcing it; but, at the same time, as a man of the most inviolable honour, of an humane and beneficent difpofition, irreproachable in his morals, and animated with a lively sense of the excellence and importance of religion. In 1760, the King conferred on him the Provoftship of the Cathedral of Brandenburg, in which city he spent the last eleven years of his life; and the correspondence between the King and him during this period, which is here published, is highly honourable to both, and contains the most striking proofs of his Majesty's esteem and friendship for the Baron.
A few days before his death, he seemed to have a kind of prescience of its approach, which, from his age, may easily be accounted for. His behaviour on this occasion, though something peculiar, does honour to his character as a Christian ; and M. Buttner has related the circumstances in an interesting manner.
After attending divine worship on Sunday, at the French church, as was his constant cuftom, he fixed on the spot in which he was determined to be interred; and, the next day, gave orders to have bis gravé prepared, with particular directions concerning the manner in which it should be done. After this, he resolved to have his coffin made ; and one day, when he seemed to be rather more than commonly cheerful, had eaten heartily, and expressed great satisfaction in the pleasure which this circumttance gave to those around him; he suddenly dismissed the servants that had attended, and desired M. BUTTNER to order his coffin ; when this came home, he went into the apartment in which it was placed, examined it with great composure, then uncovering his white hairs, sat down on it, and ordered one of his attendants to read a German hymn, which begins with an expression to this purpose: “ Behold the grave ! this is the bed on which I must embrace death.” Never, says M. Buttner, shall I forget this venerable old man, this knight without fear and without reproach, thus fitting, surrounded by his family, who in vain endeavoured to conceal their tears. He then settled all his temporal affairs, and thought of nothing, but bis approaching passage to eternity. Four days before bis decease, he desired that the Lord's Supper might be publicly administered in his chamber; and, after partaking of this with his whole family, and several members of the community, he solemnly blessed his children, and took leave of all the attendants. On the second of May 1774, as his attendant was reading a prayer to him, his son, the prefent Baron, came into his chamber, and offered to relieve the reader. His father tenderly
pressed his band, and turning himself on one fide, fell afleep. 'I make use of this expression,' adds M, BUTTNER, because I know none more proper to represent the insensible transition of this great man from life to death.' Mis Visar
ART. III. Voyages interesans, &c. i. e. Iộteresting Voyages in different Colonies, French, Spanish, English, &c. Containing import ant Observations relative to these Countries; and a Memoir on the Maladies that are most common at St. Domingo, the Remedies for them, and the Means of preventing them, both moral and physical. With remarkable Anecdotes, never before printed. Collected and published from a great Number of Manuscripts, by Mons. N. 8vo. Paris. 1788.
Notwithstanding this very long title, we have fill to learn from an advertisement that the manuscripts to which the anonymous author alludes, were collected by his uncle, Monf. B. member of the Academy of Rochelle. In proceeding toward the conclusion of the work, we find that Mons. B. is a Monsieur Bourjeois, Secretary to the Chamber of Agriculture at the Cape -which appears afterward to be Cape St. François-o litile regard has this author to the time and patience of bis reader. The work is ill-written *; we should suspe&t Monf. N. not to be a native of France. His remarkable anecdotes are neither amusing nor inftructive. They relate to persons unknown, whose names are continually expressed by initials, not worth decypbering. Compared with the pompous title, this work is. one illustration among many of the s Parturiunt montes, "&c.Gil-s.
Memoirs concerning America, by Don ANT. DE ULLOA,
These Memoirs were originally published at Madrid in 1772, under the title of Noticias Americanas, Entretenimientos Phyficos
* In the creatise on the diseases prevalent at St. Domingo and the remedies for curing them, we find the following description of a well-known plant: The body of this tree is very branchy; its leaves are of a middling fize, of a deep green, and rough to the touch; and it is covered all over with little bunches of flowers, whose colour is nearly that of marigolds ; its root purges tolerably well. After fuch a strange description of RAUBARB, which is literally translated, Tet our readers form their own judgment of the author's knowlege of the Materia Medica, and his qualification as a writer an diseases, and
Hiftoricos fobre la America Meridional y la Septentrional Oriental; and they are frequently quoted by Dr. Robertson, in his History of America ; where that ingenious author has given the most valuable part of the information which they contain. They relate chiefy to the climate and natural history of that continent, and were translated into German by Professor Diez of Gottingen, and published with notes by M. SCHNEIDER ; which notes confift, moftly, of extracts from the several writers who have described those countries. These notes are reduced into a more systematical order, and considerably enlarged by M. LEFEBURE De VILLEBRUNE, the French translator of this work, and of Count CARLI's American Letters *.
This gentleman seems to be exceedingly desirous of establishing some hypothesis to account for the population of America; but he appears rather inconsistent in his opinions on this subject. In this work, he seems to adopt the theory advanced by its ingenious author ; according to which, America was peopled, foon after the Deluge, by some adventurers from the old world; who having, from the preservation of Noah in the Ark, acquired some ideas of ship-building and navigation, were accidentally driven from the coast of Africa, and carried, by the trade-winds, first to the West Indian islands, and afterward to the continent of America. In his translation of the American Letters, he endeavours to confirm Count CARLI's hypothefis, which is of a very different nature, and indeed dire&tly opposite to that of Don ANT. DE ULLOA; but the most extraoardinary circumftance is that, in each of these translations, he refers to the other, and recommends both as mutually illustrative and supplementary; whereas, in fact, these two works are very different in their design, and have nothing in common except their translator.
Mi's Vicar, • See our last Appendix, p. 579. We did not then know that M. DE VILLEBRUNE was the name of the translator.
Copy of a Letter addressed to the Authors of the MONTHLY Review, relative to a passage in M. de Pauw's Recherches Philosophiques sur les Grecs.
In Mr. Pauw's Researches concerning the Greeks t, a work on which he presumes to bestow the epithet philosophical, and in which he promises to relate all that great historians have omitted, and all that they did not know, there is a chapter on the Amphictyonic Council, on which he seems chiefly to value himself; boasting his disco. veries on this subject above those of all former writers. He tells us,
+ Of which you gave an account in your last Appendix.
I. That the Amphictyons regulated only little matters, such as the repairs of the Temple of Delphi, and the celebration of the Pythian games. II. That these pretended states-general of Greece had so little influence in public affairs, that they are not once mentioned by Thucydides, in his History of the Peloponnesian War. III. That the ruling paflion of the Amphictyons was a spirit of superstition. They undertook three sacred wars against the little villages of Phocis and Locris, for having levied tolls on those who entered their harbours, and for having cultivated some fields which the Amphictyons pretended ought for ever to remain barren and desolate. Nothing can be more absurd than to imagine that a piece of land should produce neither corn nor fruit trees, because it had been dedicated to Apollo. IV. That foreign states treated, not with the Amphictyons, but with Athens, Sparta, and Thebes, which republics became successively as powerful as all the rest of Greece together. From which circumftances Mr. Pauw concludes that a defect in the federal union occafioned the ruin of Greece. As if this was a new discovery, Mr. Pauw avails himself of the imaginary triumph which it affords him, to decry all modern writers who have investigated the history of Greece: they all repeat after one another, and even Dr. Gillies has not failed to copy the prejudices of his predecessors respecting the Amphictyonic Council.
That Dr. Gillies, however, has not copied his predecessors, but that Mr. Pauw has copied him, will appear from the following quotation from Gillies's Ancient Greece, 8vo edit. vol. iii. p. 466.
“ During the superiority, or, in the language of ancient writers, during the empire of Athens, Sparta, and Thebes, the majesty of the Amphictyonic Council had degenerated into an empty pageant. Its deliberations were confined to matters of mere form; it regulated some ceremonies of superstition ; it superintended games and spectacles; it preserved peace and good order among the crowd of strangers, who assembled at stated times to consult the oracle of Apollo. But for more than a century past, the public manners of the Greeks had been directed by councils held, not at Delphi, the residence of the Amphictyons, but in Athens, Sparta, or Thebes, in one or other of which the allies 'convened on every important emergency, acknowleging the respective authority of those capitals as the heads of their several confederacies.”
· Had Mr. Pauw attentively read the work which he presumes to criticise, he would have seen that the authority of the Amphictyonic Council varied at different times; he would have seen these variations diftinctly marked ; and he would have avoided an error which deforms his work throughout, the confounding all chronology, and referring to one period the customs and institutions of another. His conduct is the more reprehenfible, as it is totally repugnant to the maxims of German honesty.
• Proceeding in the same strain, Mr. P. observes, “ That the writers of ancient history have shewn a wonderful ingenuity in difputing things that are trilling or fabulous. They have collected the most minute circumstances respecting the Trojan war, and the Argonautic expedition-and Dr. Gillies knows the value of the Golden Fleece in fterling money."
· After reading the history of that expedition in Dr. G.'s work, how astonishing does it appear, that Mr. Pauw should blame him for faying, what he has not said, either directly or by any possible implication! To elude this accusation, should Mr. P. pretend that his criticism is only a joke (mauvaise plaisanterie!) after the manner of the French, whom he is so ill qualified to imitate, let him seriously conlider the fable of The Ass and the Spanjel
I am, Gentlemen!
For MARCH, 1789.
North America, the British Provinces, and West Indies. With Ob-
2 s. 6d. sewed. Robinsons. 1788.
of the present system of laws in the American provinces, will meet with a disappointment; for on that head we have only a few detached observations. The bulk of the work is taken up with defining the nature of the jurisdiction of the Courts of Westminster-hall over the British provinces, and other similar matters, that now have no respect to the independent American States. The changes that have taken place in these provinces in respect to jurisdiction and jurisprudence, since they became free ftates, are very imperfectly recited; only a few particulars, in some of the provinces, being specified.
However, though it be, in this point of view, imperfect, the work may still prove useful to those who intend to form connections. with any of the West Indian islands, or other dependencies of this country; as it will allift them in forming an idea of the mode of procedure when it becomes necessary for them to sue for justice. Some particulars likewise occur respecting the recovery of debts by British subjects in the United States, which deserve to be attended to by merchants who are engaged in commercial connections with these New States, Anware
MEDICAL and CHIRURGICAL.
taining Reflections on its Causes and fatal Effects in 1787. With
The Spectator began his lucubrations, by gratifying his readers with a description of his abilities, disposition, and person ; which