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of Bamff and Murray. It appears, that in the course of fifteen
15,000 Spruce Fir
10,000 Silver Fir
10,500 Common Scotch Fir 3,668,420
Total 4,874,198 These are princely plantations ! yet they form only a part of those that have been made by Lord Fife; for it is now, as his Lordship informs the Society, above thirty years fince bis plantations commenced; and from their infancy,' be adds, to the present period, I have .nursed them with care, regularity, and perseverance; every succeeding year has enlarged the old, or has given birth to a new planted inclosure. By these means, about GEVEN THOUSAND acres, of bleak and in hospitable moors, have been clothed with rising and Aourishing trees, in Aberdeen fhire, Bamffshire, and Moray.' It is with pleasure that we register these important improvements, which we hope will stimulate others who bave fach bleak and in hospitable moors' on their eftates to follow so laudable an example. That they may see what fuccess has attended these efforts, we subjoin the following table of measurement, the circumference taken at three feet from the ground, in different parts of the plantation. The specification of soil, we presume, is intended to thew what soils were deemed the moft favourable to the different kinds of trees. The crees were planted about twenty five years ago.
Circumthe Trunk. Height.
Feet. Inchesi Loam, and clay bottom, Oaks, - 12 25 to 30 2 92 Light black earth,
Elm, - 13
30 35 5 4 Heavy wet ground, Ah,
3 9 Dry sandy Coil,
30 35 3
Larch, Good heavy loam,
6 - 3 Silver Fir,
6 8 It will be remarked that the larch and silver fir greatly outgrow the other trees ; but we regret that no measurement was made of the common fir, with which they might be compared. The common firs, we are told, are planted merely as nurses to the other trees, the plants being bought in that country, at a proper size for planting, at the very moderate price of ten pence per thousand.
We had occasion to take notice, a few months ago, on the authority of the President de la Tour d' Aigues, that beams of larix wood were of exceeding great durability. This fact is farther confirmed in the present volume. Mr. Francis Dennison writes from Petersburg, that the larch wood is there solely appropriated to ship building, for which use it answers perfectly well; and that line of battle thips are built of it at Archangel. Mr. Ritchie, his Majesty's Chargé des Affaires at Venice, also writes that it is there likewise employed in ship-building ; to which there appears to be no other objection than its weight on some occasions. It is certainly lighter than oak; but, on account of the shoals in the Adriatic, the Venetians are obliged to build with very light wood. It refifts, he says, the intemperature of the air more than any other wood known in this country, and therefore it is much used in making outer gates, pales, &c. which are constantly exposed to the open air. It is no less durable within doors, and in some of the very old palaces here, there are beams of larix as found as wben first placed there. In a word, wherever strength and durability are required, this is reckoned here the most choice and valuable wood; and it may be applied to a great number of uses. We are glad to collet authentic information concerning the uses of this valuable and ornamental tree, with a view to introduce the culture of it more generally into this country. As a maritime nation, we cannot pay too much attention to every article that may prove serviceable in the construction of ships,
and at a moderate price, which this species of timber promises effectually to do. It flourishes in a great variety of foils, and on the bleakest exposures.
In our account of the fifth volume of these Transactions, we had occasion to notice the recovery from the sea, by embankment; of a whole island in the mouth of the Thames; in the
present present volume, we are also favoured with an account of another successful attempt to rob old Neptune of part of his domains. The Rev, Mr. Henry Bate Dudley, in the parish of Bradwell (near the sea) in Eflex, “ did, in the year 1786, securely inclose, by an embankment of soil only, a tract of land measuring forty-five acres, one rood, and twenty-five poles ; which land, until such enclosure, bad been, from time immemorial, overflowed by the sea from the German ocean.” These are the words of an attestation figned by the minifter, church wardens, and overseers of the parish, who thus proceed to atteft, that " the sea wall, now enclosing this recovered land, contains ih length one hundred and eighty-three poles; that its base is thirty-two feet, its height seven feet, and the top five feet wide: That it is the general opinion, the land so gained is worth twenty shillings an acre on a lease of twenty-one years.” They' also certify, that the expence of this improvement was as under, viz. 1441 rods (of 21 feet each) of walling at 30 mil
lings per rod, and five guineas extra £221 12 6 One new sea gutter five feet clear run
60 Removing and altering another Hilling up rills
50 Planks, barrows, and other tools
15 Carting ditto, and extra's
362 12 6 A small price for such a valuable purchase.
Mr. Professor Ross, of Aberdeen, informs us, that the turnip-rooted cabbage had been cultivated with success in that remote part of the country, by being fown broad-cast, and hoed like furnips; and recommends that plant as valuable spring food for cattle. This confirms the more extensive experiments of Sir Thomas Beevor, concerning this article.
Mr. John Boore, having found the practice of drilling all forts of grain, as mentioned in the fifth volume of these Tranf. a&ioas, extremely profitable, bas carried it into practice on a fill more extensive scale, having drilled no less than four hundred and fifty acres, in the year 1787, by means of Mr. Cooke's drill machine, and has had the fatisfaction to find the crops in every case better than those that were sown broadcast on land of the same quality ; so that he computes he has been benefited by that practice, in one year, to the amount of five hundred pounds at least and therefore resolves to continue it. His letter is written in a high Aow of spirits, and gives a pleasant account of the observations of his neighbours on that practice, with their final conviction of its proving highly beneficial, Nothing is wanting to render these experiments altogether la..,
tisfactory, except that he has omitted to mention the width between the drills, and to ascertain what is the moft favourable distance From Mr. Winter's experiment (see our account of Ben. Bramble's pamphlet in Rev. for Nov. last, p. 461.) intervals of seven inches appear to produce weightier crops than either nine or eleven inches. Mr. Boote's experiments, however, clearly evince that the practice of lowing grain in narrow drills, so as to admit of the hand hoe, is highly beneficial in moft situations ; and it would appear that the drill machine which he employed has answered the purpose of sowing very well. He finds that grass feeds succeed perfe&tly well with drilled crops, if they be lown over the field immediately before the laft hoeing be given to the grains:-he has not, however, yet been able to ascertain what is the exa& expence of hoeing these
Such of our agricultural readers as have not an opportunity of seeing this volume, will perhaps be glad to be informed of the result of two comparative experiments between broadcast and drilled wheat on the same foil, by Mr. Boote.
Produce per acre. jft, Wheat drilied upon poor clay, after clover 25 4 Wheat rown broadcast on part of the fame field 13 7
Bush. Gal. Pint.
4 7 2d. Wheat drilled by Mr. Boote on part of his farm, adjoining to a field of ground of the fame quality belonging to a neighbouring farmer, which was fown broadcast, and was in equally good order before, and had dung to sbe wheat, while Mr. Boote's bad none. The crops, while growing, were compared by an impartial neighbour, who estimated Mr. Boore's crop to exceed the other in the proportion of three to two, at leaft.
These are important experiments.
We are glad to find that the Chinese hemp, mentioned in the former volume, has been found to succeed perfectly well in this climate, and promises to be a valuable addition io the lift of useful vegetables. The Rev. Dr. Hinton, at Northwold, having accidentally saved some ripe seeds, lowed them on the noch of May 1787, on a small patch of good landThey came up well, and attained as much perfection as ordinary hemp. The produce, when dressed, weighed at the rate of ninety five ftone seven pounds and twelve ounces per acre -- (the usual crop of hemp in that neighbourhood, we are also informed, seldom exceeds fixiy stone) - and at the rate of three bushels two pecks and half a pint of seed per acre, were saved. Dr. Hinton fupposes that the feeds which were brought from China have failed merely by having been (wo years old, at which age
hemp seed seldom vegetates. Now that it is found to ripen with us, freth feeds can always be obtained.
Dr. Hinton also communicates the result of three comparative crials between wheat fown broadcast, and drilled; each og the same field, and under the same management, in every other respect. In these trials the advantage was invariably in favour of the drilled crop.
Io experiment ift, the excess was, per acre, 5 bush. 16 quarts. In experiment 2d,
9 In experiment 3d, ditto
8 No. 1, we are cold, was hand-hoed three times ; No. 2 and' 3 hand-boed swice." The expence of these operations from 16 to 18 pence per acre (each hoeing, we presume). The broad. caft was carefully weeded by hand, at the expence of from seven to ten fhillings per acre. We mention these experiments chus particularly, as they lead to important conclufions in agriculturt. Dr. Hinton has also omitted to specify the distance of the drills from each other.
These are all the articles that relate to the futje of agricul: ture in the present volume ; and had those belonging to the other branches of science which have engaged the attention of the Society, been equally numerous and valuable, our review of this volume would have furnished a larger article than usual.
Under the head Chemistry there is only one article-It is an account of a native foflil alkali, found in the neighbourhood of Bombay —which Mr. Hellenus Scott says may be afforded in a refined Aate for the price of 300 rupees, (about 37 pounds 10 Thilliags) per ton, and could be obtained in large quantities. From an accurate analysis of this specimen of the rali, by Mr. Keir, of Birmingham, it was found to consist of the following materials, in the proportions exprefled:
100 o grains of crude falt. Tbis is rather purer than good barilla--but as the heterogeneous matter in barilla is different from that in this native foffil alkali, it may have very different effects in fome manu- . factures.
Mr. Jefle Ruffel, of London, briefly states the comparative purity of this falt as opposed to others, thus :
Refined native foffil alkali (the specimen) 9