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Maty's Sermons. itaque Jaëlem, cum lac daret, animum habuisse inebriandi Siferæ : nec aliter concipi polle, qui fa£tum fit ut imperator prælio victus, atque in fugam præcipitem conjetus, mox tam profundo fomno Jopiri potuerit. Quæ viri celeb. sententia uti nobis vehementer placet, ita gaudemus etiam novum nos illi robur conciliare nunc polle auctoritate Tanchumi, Judæi Hierofolymitani,” &c.
The opinion of these able critics will, perhaps, receive additional support from a custom which fill prevails among the Tartars. They prepare from the milk of their mares a sort of wine which they call Koumifs, and which, we are told, deferves to be celebrated for its healing as well as its intoxicating qualities. See M. Rev. July 1788, p. 35.
Art. VI. Sermons preached in the British Ambasador's Chapel, at
Paris, in the Years 1774, 1775, 1776. By the late Rev. Paul Henry Mary, M. A. F. R.S. Under Librarian at the British Mu. seum, and some time Secretary to the Royal Society. 8vo. 10 s. 6d. Boards. Cadell, &c. 1788. HE author of these Sermons was well known in the literary
world. His talents and character procured him the office of Chaplain to the British Ambassador at Paris. His extensive acquaintance with men of science and learning, and his personal attainments, rendered him well qualified for the pofts which he occupied after he became refident in England. In the capacity of a clergyman he appeared with credit and diftin&tion, and might ealily have arrived at preferment, had he not found it necesary, from conscientious motives, to separate from the church of England. In the year 1777, he published his reasons for this measure ; on which he declared, that he left the Eftablishment, not because he disapproved of subscriptions in general (for they seemed to him both lawful and expedient), but because he was dissatisfied with the Athanafian doElrine concerning the Trinity, and with the doctrines of the Church concerning original fin, predeftination, &c. and because he thought that some of these doctrines Itrike at the root of all religion.
After this unequivocal proof of his integrity, Mr. Maty was in a situation which rendered the conftant exertion of his talents necefsary to his comfortable subfiftence. Among other useful labours, he undertook, and for some years supported *, with con
* As his father, Dr. Maty, had done before him, near 40 years ago. The Doctor's work was written in French, and entitled Journal Britannique. We forget whether it came out monthly or quar. terly. It was carried on for some years, with general approbation : yet it was at lak discontinued for want of encouragement from the public.
fiderable reputation, though small profit, and almost without allistance, a Literary Journal. The public will easily believe that, thus circumstanced, he would have little opportunity of making provision for his family; and they will not wonder that it has been thought expedient to print a volume of Sermons for their benefit. The work is published under the respectable names of “ The Bishop of St. David's, Charles Peter Layard, and Richard Southgate."
A volume of Sermons, introduced to the world under these circumstances, has, independently of its intrinsic merit, a powerful claim on the attention of the public. But the discourses themselves are, by no means, unworthy of publication. They poffess much originality *, and are strongly marked with the peculiar character of the author. The subjects are chiefly practical ; they are written with animation ; they breathe a liberal spirit; and, though drawn up when the author was young, to borrow the words of the Editors, they contain much which may edify the pious Christian.' The following brief extract may serve to thew the author's manner. Discourfing on Luke, ii. 13, 14. he says:
Examine the morality of the Gospel, and you will find, that a country, in which it should become prevalent, would need no other tie to ensure its prosperity. It would be a community of brethren who would mutually aftili, support, protect, and console each other : it would be a land in which property would be only ascertained, that it might be again more pleasurably communicated: it would be an affociation from the midst of which charity would banish strife, and exclude, first cover, and then exclude for ever'a multitude of fins : it would be one comprehensive, one feeling family, in which honour, gratitude, friendship, filial piety, love; all the social affections would flourish with the same strength, the fame freshness, the same purity, the same unalienable constancy that they had in the infancy of the world : it would be the Jerusalem of our God, the Mount Zion where he would love to dwell; the temple where he would fix his habitation and security; equal security from foreign and domestic foes, would attest that his glory rested round it.
• Who is there, indeed, who is there, independently of the resistance they would expect from a band of brothers, who is there would venture to attack a city constituted and defended in such a manner?
* A BROTHER Journalist having declared the 14th, 15th, and 16th Discourses to have been copied from Archbishop Secker, we have, on this occasion, turned to the Archbishop's works, and in his ad and 3d volumes we found the three Sermons, which had been transcribed, with scarcely the variation of a single word.-Had this circumitance been known to the Right Rev. and Rev. Editors, those borrowed Sermons, we may be assured, would not have been here given to the world as the compofitions of Mr. Maty :-who might have bad reasons for delivering, from the pulpit, some of Dr. Secker's excellent Discourses ; but he could never have intended to publish them, as his own. - We are sorry that he suffered his transcripts to survive him. G. Rav. March, 1789.
Who is there would be interested in being their enemies, who should neither insult, despise, envy, or refuse allittance to any of their fellow creatures ? If they had enemies, their itandard would be the general standard of the good; and the Lord of hosts would lead their armies to the field.
• Wherefore, alas! then, wherefore is there ftill so little of reality in this perspective ? And was it, indeed, rather a wish than a prediction, which was uttered by the melengers of heaven ? Did they in truth foresee, that men would make an unworthy use of this last present, as they had done of all others ? Did they anticipate ages still more dark than any which had preceded them, and discover tyranny and superstition erecting their joint dominion upon the ruins of freedom, literature, and good-manners? And were there no other proSpects unfolded but the melancholy ones of a religion established by massacres ; and the symbols of a God of love, changed into the sig. nals of havock and desolation ?
• Far be it from us to suppose it. Thank Heaven those days of blood are only to be found in the impartial chronicles, which hold vp the crimes of ancestors for the instruction of their descendants : and thank Heaven still more, there is not a descendant but what blushes at the recollection of parental stains, and deteits the uncharitable principles which occasioned them. This we owe to the progress of human reason, and more particularly to the effects of that improvement apparent in the reformation. What was done then, what, though imperceptibly almost, has been done fince, even the works which our adversaries have raised to the honour of the living God; the feeds of tolerance, compaflion, and general benevolence which they have scattered amidst the tales, contribute to persuade us, that the re-establishment of all things will approach in God's due time; and that our happier descendants, at least, will see the fortunate æra we have been endeavouring to describe. Parents of this flattering hope ; inhabitants of this favoured ille; you, whose fathers took so active, so honourable a part in the great work, we persuade ourselves that you will prove faithful to the blood from whence you sprung; that you will be the foremost to lay aside prejudices which ftill disgrace Chriftianity; to give examples of forgiveneis to brethren who differ from you; to picy, cherith, console, and enlighten adver. saries who have not had the fame advantages of a religious education as yourselves. So fhall the common Master be exalled as he desires ; so shall “ Glory be to God in the highest.”
After the account which we have given of this publication, and its ohject, the generous Public will not be displeased at the unusual price of the volume, but will be happy in an opportunity of affifting the widow and children of a worthy man. E. Arr. VII. Twelve Discourses, delivered chiefly at the Meeting
house of the People called Quakers, in the Park, Southwark. By the late Thomas Letchworth, Svo. 45. Boards. Richardson. 1787. THE doctrine of universal grace, of which a portion is given to every man, and by obedience to which he is enabled to fulfil his duty, is the leading principle of the Quakers : the discourses before us chiefly inculcate this doctrine, and at the fame time shew, that every moral action is wholly dependant on the Spirit which is sole director to every good work. Keeping this single point always in view, the preacher is every where confiitent with himself, and sometimes so to such a degree, that he repeats the same things, in different discourses, nearly in the same words : for this however the editor makes an apology, in the Preface.
The Discourses were taken in thort hand by a person not of the same religious opinions with the preacher; and when we consider that the Quakers disclaim all previous study in composing their sermons, we must admire the energy of the language, although we cannot always affent to the doctrines inculcated.
Thomas Letchworth began his minifterial labours at an early period of life: a consumprive habit and an imperfect state of health in his youth, probably conspired with a disposition naturally reflective and serious, to raise in his mind a strong sense of the vanity of human desires, and the great importance of a re. ligious life. The qualifications for the miniftry not being, according to the tenets of the Quakers, attainable any other way than by regeneration, which is the work of God, Mr. Letchworth, by serious meditation, and continual waiting for the Spirit, became, at 20 years of age, an admired and useful preacher.
The text to the first Sermon is, Men and brethren, what shall we do to be saved? It is a good composition, and had been princed before, in Ireland, where it was attributed to another preacher. We call it a compofition, because it appears to be the production of much study, and not the extemporaneous effu. fion of extravagant enthufialm. The following specimen will support our opinion:
No person, who fincerely believes in the existence of a God, in a future ftate, and in the awful doctrine of rewards and punithments, can be indifferent respecting what may be his lot, when he shall be dispossessed of this frail tabernacle of clay which he now in habits, and which is approaching to the period of its dissolution. It cannot be a matter of indifference to him, whether he shall finally receive the irrevocable sentence of, Go, ye cursed, into regions of unspeakable misery; or, Come ye bleffed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for the righteous ;-enter thou into the joy of thy Lord, and into thy Master's rett.
• This concern has prompted many to enquire what is essentially necessary for them to believe and practise, in order to render themselves proper objects of divine complacence, and furnish them with a well-grounded hope of a happy and glorious immortality.
• The honest and sincere in every nation under heaven, have formed different ideas of the requisites of salvation; and they have, of course, pursued as different measures to accomplish that desirable and blessed end. 2.2
• It does not appear to be my present business to particularize any of the various systems of faith which are adopted by any party among mankind. It is not to controvert matters, in which fincere men of various denominations most surely believe, but rather to recommend them to stand open always to conviction, and to a strict attention to those rules of conduct, which, on an impartial examination, appear to them the most agreeable to the will of Heaven. I shall therefore address myself to those, in whatever religious fociety they are found, whose honest inquiries have not yet been attended with fufficient conviction,-have not yet led them clearly to perceive what the terms are on which their future happiness depends, and are, therefore, looking one upon another, whilst this important question is found at least in their hearts, if not in their mouths, Men and brethren what fall we do to be saved ?"
What we have here transcribed is the introduction to the first discourse, the whole of which is in the same style. The other discourses are similar to this in language, and they all proceed on the same principle.
The present performance will, doubtless, be acceptable to all persons whose religious sentiments coincide with those of the author; and every conscientious Chriftian will receive instruction from the perusal of it. The necessary government of the passions, and a firm resistance of the allurements to vice, are often enlarged on; and proper directions are given for obtaining that holy difposition of mind which must necessarily be productive of good works, and inAuence every moral action. R....
Art. VIII. Obfervations on the Diseases of the Army in Jamaica;
and on the belt Means of preserving the Health of Europeans, in that Climate. By John Hunter, M. D. F. R. S. and Physician to the Army. 8vo. Pp. 328. 55. Boards. Nicol. 1788. R. Hunter, who was superintendant of the military hospitals
at Jamaica, from the beginning of the year 1781, to May 1783, has, in the present volume, given a minute account of the most prevailing diseases, which he there had an opportunity of observing
In the introduction to his work, he describes the ifland of Jamaica, particularly the face of the country, the climate, the produce, and the usual state of the weather. He next enumerates the diseases to which Europeans are subject on their arrival in the island ; of these, the most fatal are fevers and fluxes. They are indeed concomitants with armies in all parts of the world, but in tropical climates they rage with peculiar violence, Dr. Hunter thinks they seem to depend on the same cause, perhaps differently modified. 'They are, doubtless, intimately connected, for they are frequently combined together, often interchange with each other, and it rarely happens that one is epi.