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tion of travelling post in Tartary; for which we must refer to the book.
Letter xxxix. from Karasbayer, gives a description of the performance of the national songs, by the Russian peasants; and Letter xl, contains a relation of a mock battle between the Colsacks: both of which are very entertaining; but we cannot make room for them.
Letter xl111. from Sevastopole, a port in the Crimea, gives a picturesque outline of the singular and striking scenery presented by the coast, the harbour, &c. and concludes with some liberal reflections, which do honour to the writer, both as a lover of her own country, and as a citizen of the world.
The postscript to the forty-fourth Epistle is curious on account of the dashes :
• You may think me very odd in saying a voyage is a bitter draught to me—you will be much more surprised when I tell you, I hate travelling; but you know why I travel
• And as I do, I am determined to see that place where the capi. tal of the world ought to be placed; when I am sick at sea, I shall think of that-and that according to a vulgar English saying, the longest way about is the nearest way home
Letter xlvi. from Pera (a suburb of Constantinople).
• As' to women, as many, if not more than men, are to be seen ia the streets-but they look like walking mommies -A large loose robe of dark green cloth covers them from the neck to the ground, over that a large piece of muslin, which wraps the shoulders and the arms, another which goes over the head and eyes; judge, Sir, if all these coverings do not confound all shape or air so much, that men or women, princesses and flaves, may be concealed under them. I think I never saw a country where women may enjoy so much liberty, and free from all reproach, as in Turkey-Á Turkish husband that fees a pair of flippers at the door of his harem, must not enter; his respect for the fex prevents him from intruding when a stranger is there upon a visit; how easy chen is it for men to visit and pass for women-If I was to walk about the streets here, I would certainly wear the same dress; for the Turkish women call others names, when they meet them with their faces uncovered
- Boats here are to be hired as hackney.coaches are in London, and all very beautifully carved, most of them with some gild. ing; the shape of these boats is light and beautiful, and the Turks row very well, which is a thing quite incompatible with the idleness visible in all ranks of people I saw a Turk the other day lying on cushions, striking slowly an iron which he was shaping into an horseshoe, his pipe in his mouth all the time-nay, among the higher order of Turks, there is an invention which saves them the trouble of holding the pipe, and thus the smoaker has only to puff away, or let the pipe rest opon his under lip, while he moves his head as he pleases-Perhaps, Sir, it is lucky for Europe that the Turks are idle and ignorant- the immense power this empire might bave, were is peopled Rev. Marsh, 1789.
by the induftrious and ambitious, would make it the mistress of the world-At present, it only serves as a dead wall to intercept the commerce and battles which other powers might create one another
· The Sultan has the highest opinion of the sense and courage of the Capitan Pacha; when he quits Conftantinople the fovereign thinks his capital in danger-But I find all ranks of people agree in his having introduced a better police for the town than hitherto existed—At a fire, some janissaries not doing their duty properly, he had four of them Aung into it. Pour encourager les autres, as Voltaire has observed upon another occafion-He is always accompanied by a lion, who follows him like a dog—The other day he suffered him to accompany him to the Divan, but the ministers were so terrified that some jumped out of the windows, one was near breaking his neck in flying down stairs, and the High Admiral and his lion were left to settle the councils of the day together
The xlviith Letter contains many, very many lines of dabes, which are rather unintelligible,
Some curious particulars concerning a principal harem, that of the Capitan Pacha, occur in the xlixth Epiftle; but they are so long, that, though it is much against our inclination, we can only refer the reader to them.
The fiftieth Letter describes the enviable situation of the Turkish wives. Whatever misfortunes may befal the husband, or in however low a station of life he may be, the person of the wife is sacred, free from all constraint, insult, or reproach ; and while be is abroad at hard labour, she takes her pleasure in making vifts, or in ficting at home. bedecked with jewels.'
The Letters from Athens contain many sprightly descriptions, and sensible reflections on the ancient and modern state of Greece. The last of them concludes in the lively manner following, not without her ladyfhip's arch dalhes:
• The little Tarleton * is an excellent sailer with a fair wind; bor, like all delicate little frames, is too much thaken when the meets with rough treatment
• I remain, my dear Brother,
« Your affectionate
• E. C LETTER LXI. - It is said Varna t was the place where Ovid was sent into banishment; it might be so; but the chief part of his exile was passed in Moldavia; the borders of a lake where he often walked have be. come famous; the gentleness of his manners, and the sweet cone of his voice have been recorded from father to son, down to the present inhabitants of that part of Moldavia
Letters LXII. and ixili, contain an account of her Lady
* The name of a small frigate in which Lady C. was then failing. + A Turkilla town on the Thore of the Black Sea, called Romelia,
Thip's journey through Varna and Silistria *, with a lively description of a kind of upper servant, or creature, of the Vifir, called a Tchouadar, who was commissioned by M. de Choiseul (the French Ambassador), and the Imperial Minister, to attend and protect her. But he proved so lazy, mercenary, treacherous, and cowardly, that Lady C. is provoked to speak of him, and, indeed, of the Turks in general, in a style which is not very fattering to the chara&ter of the “ true believers.”
The Lxivth and the Lxvth Epistles, dated from Buccoreft, in Wallachia, give an account of the honours and civilities paid to the fair wanderer, by the Prince and Princess of Wallachia ; of whom we wish to give some idea by transcribing Lady C.'s account; but our extracts are already extended to so great a length, that we must refer the curious reader to the volume itself.
Letters Lxvi. and LXVII, are dated from Hermanstadt, the capital of Transylvania, in the dominions of the Emperor of Germany. The first contains an account of the rough journey through the dangerous road between Transylvania and Wallachia. The second presents us with one instance, among many others, of the politeness of the Emperor. He had informed Lady Craven that he fhould pay her a visit; and came, accordingly, on foot, attended only by General Brown.
The visit, which lafted two hours and a half, was partly employed in looking over the maps, &c. with which her Ladyship had been presented, and with which he was much pleased.
We shall now transcribe the concluding Letter (the Lxviith) entire, except a few lines :
- Vienna, Aug. 30, 1786. • I am arrived very safely and pleasantly here, and was only delayed upon the road by the Compte de Soro, who infifted upon my dining with him-I think Hungary a noble country, and only wants navigations made across from the Adriatic to the Danube, to be one of the richest and best peopled countries upon earth. Turkish idleness, which probably ever will remain the same, gives a fine opportunity for the inhabitants of Hungary to become the richest and happiest people in the world-If Fate had made me mistress of that particular spot, I should form a strict alliance with the Porte, asking nothing but a free trade upon the Black Sea-Can you conceive, Sir, any thing so comfortable as to have an immense wall or barrier, such Turkish fupineness creates, between my kingdom and an ambitious neighbour !-How I would encourage Afiatic splendour, fuperstition, and laziness, and never do any thing that could weaken such a barrier - Ambition, which often leads men into wrong paths in politics, may suggest to the Imperial courts that the Turks should be confined to their Afiatic fore, and all European Turkey should belong to the Christians-but I am not of that opinion; and, after the sea, I would not wish to surround my country with any other de. fence than that which Mahometan idleness could form-The Turks are faithful to their treaties, and do not seek war under false pre* A town on the borders of Wallachia, P 2
tences—Their revolted Pachas give them too much trouble, conftantly, not to make them desire eternal peace with their foreign neighbours-A gentleman with a foolith troublesome wife to make his fireside uncomfortable, does not go out of his house to seek new discontents—Such is the situation of the Porte-The perpetual difquietude of the 'empire makes the thinking Tork find a comfort in the dull moments of reft he finds upon his carpet, spread under the lofty plantaneand we must not wonder to see so many of them. seemingly to enjoy moments, which to us would be death-like ftupidity. But as I am not the sovereign of any country, I will not take op more of your time with my reflections, but tell you that I found Prince Kaunitz here very glad to see me; he saluted me with 2- Ab! vous voila mà noble Dame
- I shall stay only till I receive letters from and and then set out for Anfpach, where I shall have the honour and moft fincere pleasure of paying my respects to you, and assuring you in perfon how much I am, dear Brother,
• Your affe&ionate Sister,
E. C' The manner in which we introduced this work to the reader, and the respect with which we have attended her Ladythip through the whole tour, leave little room for additional observas tion. Minute critics might indeed cavil at fome few circum-, stances, and perhaps censure the frequent mixture of French and English words and phrafes; but, confidering this series of familiar letters 'as a correspondence allowing a kind of transcripc of common converfation, and recollecting that the Letters thema felves were scarcely intended for publication, such liberties from a female pen are far from inexcusable.
It seemed to be the candid way of exhibiting this Tour, to pera mit the fair writer to speak for berself, which bas occafioned our uncommonly numerous extracts. So far from fearing that they will appear tedious, we declare that there are many amusing passages, which the limits prescribed to us, with respect to this article, forbad us to tranfcribe; and we will again venture to pronounce that these Letters afford a proof of a lively imagioation and a good underftanding;—and that they are calculated to please, and never can offend.
The work is ornamented with fix neat engravings of views, &c. beside the map of the roads of the Crimea. Col..n. Art. III. The History of the Turkish, or Ottoman Empire, from its
Foundation in 1 300, to the Peace of Belgrade in 1740. To which is prefixed an Historical Discoarse on Mahomet and his Succeffors. Translated from the French of Mignot. By A. Hawkins, Efq. 4 Vols. 8vo. 1. 45. Stockdale, &c. N the annals even of the moft polished nations, a profeffor of morality and humanity will frequently be tecked at the 17
means employed to attain a political end, though that end may in itself be unexceptionable : but in the history of a savage race of men, whose politics know not any law but that of force, and whose force is impelled by fear, revenge, and wanton caprice, regardless of that law of nations which regulates popular refentments in Europe, ferocity and barbarism ftain all their publis ads. This truth is not only manifeft in all former hiftories wherein the Turks appear, but even in the transactions of the present day.
The Abbot Mignot is declared, in the Translator's preface, to be nephew to the celebrated Voltaire, and that it is natural to suppose this work underwent the examination of the uncle, previous to its publication. We should as naturally adopt this fuppofition, did we perceive any strokes of Voltaire's pen in the performance; but if there were any flight touches in the original, they are loft in the tranflation; the language throughout being very penurious, and the narrative bald and dry. An inftance or two will fhew whether we do the language any injustice. In the prefatory discourse on Mahomes, which by the way, is a loose, illiberal piece, we are informed that in the course of his conquests, the impostor was like to lose his life by an accident that should have unmasked him to all his follow. ers *.' In another place, a paragraph closes with affirming that the emirs-al-omra deposed the commander of the faithful as often as their interest or caprice prompted them to ti' A prisoner who made bis escape, bad time to get away before he was found wanting to As a specimen of greater length, we shall produce the account of the inftitution of that formidable class of foldiers called Janiffaries, by Amurath 1. about the year 1370.
• He established the corps of janissaries as we see it at this day ; and, by the advice of Kara Ali his grand yizier, he ordered, that the fifth part of the slaves that should be made from the enemy (for the Turks call their prisoners of was by no other name), should belong to the sultan, and that these foreigners, having embraced Islamism, hould form a new corps, which Amurath fixed at ten thousand men, but it was afterwards considerably augmented. He divided them into odas or chambers, at the head of which he appointed particular * P. xix. + P. lxix.
| Vol. ii. p. 322. $• The Turkish emperors regard all those that become Mossulmen as subjects. Submission to the Alcoran implies always the privilege of naturalization. A renegade is sometimes prime minister of the empire. There is no other rạnk in Turkey ihan that of employments, and every Muffulman, without distinction, is capable of being appointed. The slaves taken in war, or given by tributary nations, if they are brought up from infancy in the Muffulman religion, or in military discipline, either in the seraglio or in some oda (an institucion which they call a chamber), are much furer of succeeding to high employs, than the inhabitants of towns.'