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in general are the outlines of the theatre to which Mr. Marshall's observations are principally confined. His remarks are arranged under general heads, nearly the fame with those we enumerated in the article of the Norfolk ceconomy, and which it is unnecessary here to repeat. We must now content ourselves with a general view of such particulars only, as seem requisite to give our readers some just notions of the state of agriculture in that part of the country now under confideration.
This sequestred vale, being at a distance from all thoroughfare roads, and seldom visited by strangers, and being generally occupied by small proprietors, or yeomanry, has undergone perhaps fewer alterations (and the people have preserved more of their ancient customs, and primeval fimplicity of manners) than most other diftricts of the fame extent and fertilicy. Large estates, we are cold, are here sare; extensive farms are still pera haps more feldom to be met with : and we have not heard of the feat of a single person of ample fortune within the vale. These peculiarities, if they tend to give a check to the prevalence of diffipation, and the extravagance of luxury, have, at the same time, a tendency to repress a spirit of general enterprise and public improvement. Though it perhaps may stimulate to india vidual industry, it rather discourages general exertion. A few men of influence can be more easily brought to unite in promoting, any public measure, than a great number of individuals, who, though in independent circumstances, can seldom be brought to judge liberally concerning any general measure of public utility that may be suggested. Accordingly, in the division of commons, and in some other public undertakings, where the interest of many was at stake, our author apprehends that they have frangely neglected to attend to it in time, so that the public in tereft has been sacrificed to private machinations.
Another consequence of this arrangement (still less favourable to Mr. M.'s plan) is, that great exertions in agriculcure, and extensive undertakings by individuals, similar to what he remarked in Norfolk, have been more rare in this district. Hence it has happened, that in spite of his care to avoid it, the present work is much more of a didactic, and less of a descriptive; nature, than the former.-In surveying the different objects that come before him, he so frequently finds that the practice of the diftri&t falls so far short of his idea of perfection, that he could not avoid, in registering their methods, to suggest improvements; the register, therefore, is here, in many cases, little more than a text, which furnishes matter for an ample commen, tary.
We do not remark these particulars with a view to depreciate the work, but to give a just idea of it. In every case where an opening occurred, the ingenious author has done ample justice
to the exertions and enterprises of his countrymen, and has placed them in the best point of view.
In this diftrid, grazing, rather than the railing of corn-crops, is the principal object of the husbandman's attention. It is therefore in what relates to the management of grass-land, rather than the culture of grain, that practical observations come to be registered ; and as springs are here scarce, they bave adopted some very ingenious devices for making rain-water, alone, answer all the purposes of domestic economy that deserve to be generally known. The following is Mr. Marshall's account of their manner of making cisterns :
• In this district, in which water cisterns are growing into general use, especially in upland situations, I have seen an instance where the dwelling-house alone affords more than a fufficiency of water for every use of the family. Nor is it the conveniency of having a conftant supply of water always at hand, which conftitutes the utility of water cifterns. Rain water, preserved in quantity under ground, is pare and palatable in a superior degree : cool in fummer, and warm in winter. It is particularly grateful to cattle ; especially when they are ill: and it is highly probable that, as a meditruum of aliment in general, it is the moit wholesome water.
The ftuation of a water ciftern is generally under the kitchen, or in a vacant corner of the yard, near the kitchen door.
• The form of water cisterns is various. The deeper they are funk, the better
, they preserve the water. The cube is perhaps the most convenient figure ; but a double cube would perhaps keep water better. A cistern nine feet cubical would contain twenty-seven cubical yards, or about fixty + wine hogsheads of water.
• The materials of water cisterns in this district are clay, bricks, and tarras.
• The method of making has lately received a considerable improve. ment. When the art was less known than it is at present, an irregular hole was dug; the determinate figure of the cistern being given by the walls; behind which the clay was rammed. Now, the intended form of the cistern when finished is given to the excavation ; whose fides are squared and plummed with the exactness with which a wall is carried up. On this wall-like face of the excavation the clay is laid plafter-wise, with a trowel, coat over coat, two or three inches thick ; and against this firm even face of plastering the brick work is raised. The bottom is, or ought to be, in all cases, bedded with three or four inches chick of strong clay, beaten into a smooth even wax-like substance. On this fooring of clay a double floor of brick is laid ; and on the margin of this the side walls are carried up half a brick thick. The bricks, I believe, are invariably laid in tarras.
• The covering similar to that of a well; with a pump, or a roller and bucket.'
* It appears by several passages in this work, that Mr. Marshall is himself a native of this vale. + Should not this have been ninety?
The foregoing is a cheap and excellent method of making cirterns, wherever the sub-foil is so firm as to admit of being cut down perpendicularly without falling inwards; but in loose fands, or incoherent gravel, this mode of procedure could not be adhered to.
• But it is not only with respect to water for the family that the ingen uity of the people of this district has been exerted. The furnishing of water to cattle in the fields has formerly been the cause of much trouble, and has given rise to some inconvenient customs in this vale, and since inclosures became there more common, these in, conveniencies were such as to induce the inhabitants to try to obtain watering-pools for their fields to be filled with rain water, and in this attempt they have happily succeeded. These watering pools confift of excavacions made in the soil, of a size and depth propore tioned to the extent of the field which they are intended to supply. The pool is placed so as to receive if possible the water that runs from some higher ground during rain. They are made usually of a circular form, deepening towards the middle, in the fashion of a fiat cone.'
Bur the art of making retentive pools with clay, in loose abforbent foils, the author observes, is a recent discovery in this diftridt; in which it has made a rapid progress, and is now in universal practice among farmers of every class. There is little difficulty in making a pit hold water with clay alone, provided it be kept up full to the brim; but when once emptied, its retentiveness is loft. There are two causes of this loss,-the cracking of the clay by drought; and its being liable, whenever the water subfides, to be perforated by worms, which presently convert the balon into a filtre. It is therefore necessary that those iwo enemies should be guarded against.
• To guard against the latter, a coat of lime is spread under the clay; above it a coat of earth; and over all, a covering of stone is laid, for the double purpose of guarding against drought, and for preventing the feet of cattle from injuring the clay ; on the proper working of which the art principally depends.'
Mr. M. then proceeds to describe the most effe&ual mode of completing these watering pools, and rendering them ftill more commodious than they yet bave been ; but the account is tog long for our limits.
In a note, he preserves the names of Francis and ROBERT GARDINER, well-diggers and fish-pond makers, of Driffield, as the discoverers of this and several other improvemenis; and we are well pleased to bestow our tribute of fincere applause on these valuable members of society. We always consider the inventors of useful arts as the best benefactors of mankind. The method of condu&ting water, in what Mr. M. calls artificial rills, as praised in this district, is worthy of notice as an improvement of confiderable utility.
The hedges, he observes, are superior to those of most places ; and be enters into details on that head : but all that occurs herę, as uncommon, is a practice of planting the thorns so deep as to have their tops wholly covered by the mold. He thinks this makes them shoot upright, and not laterally; but he has reason to believe that unless the covering of mold be very light, not exceeding half an inch above the top, it rather does harm than good. This is only the practice of an individual, and has not yet been generally adopted.
A fingular natural curiosity in this vale is, the formation of a foffil marle, produced by a spring, at a place called Newton Dale Well, the waters of which have been long celebrated for their medical virtues, and particularly for forming a fine cold. bath. The quantity of calcareous matter which is deposited by the stream that issues from this well, is so considerable, as to afford limestone and marle in abundance to the country around it. This is not a very unusual phenomenon, but the circumstance that appeared to us most remarkable is, that the water, as it iffues from the spring, is not only strongly impregnated with calcareous matter, but with iron also. This last is deposited, in great quantities, in the form of a rusty ochre, immediately as it issues from the spring; and as the water flows forward in its course, it becomes gradually depurated from the iron : so that, not at a great distance from the source, it discovers no traces of a chalybeate quality. The calcareous matter, however, being more strongly suspended in the water, is deposited only in very small quantities near the source ; and it is not until after the iron is almost let go, that the petrifying quality of the stream becomes remarkable, the water gradually losing this petrifying quality also, as it Aows on its course; till at length, the whole of the calcareous matter being depofited, it becomes entirely pure, without any mineral impregnation.
• Where the rill (says Mr. Marshall) meets with no vegetable matter to petrify (or rather to incrust), it forms an incrustation at the bottom of its channel, which, in time, being filled to the top, the waters overflow, spread over the slope, and incrust every thing which falls in their way, until having found some channel (or perhaps in a state of nature, having reached the face of the rock) they form a fresh rill; which being annihilated in the same manner, the waters proceed or return back along the fide of the slope ; thus forming, in an undisturbed ftate, a natural cone.
• Where the surface has been free from moss, or other vegetable production, the accumulated matter is wholly calcareous; of a light colour, resembling the marl of Norfolk, except in its being discoloured, more or less, with a chalybeate tinge. Where moss, liverwort, and other vegetables, have been incrusted, a stone-like subitance is formed: the former is called marl, the latter ftone.'
Vegetable matters inveloped in a calcareous cruft, usually called petrifactions, are found in many places; but as nature seldom performs her operations with so much rapidity as the does here, we thought the description of this extraordinary process might enable the curious reader to account for many phenomena of this nature which he may meet with. We are told, that the spring here described is situated about two miles from Saltergait Inn, on the road between Pickering and Whitby.
Among the vermin which destroy the productions of this vale, the author enumerates Dogs, which animals he stigmatises as extremely pernicious to society when they over-abound, not only by the dreadful distress produced to the human fpecies and other animals by dogs when seized with the canine madness *, but also by the ravages committed by hungry dogs in the sheepfold. Io the course of last winter, he observes (1786-7), the value of theep worried - by dogs, in this township alone, was calculated at near one hundred pounds. A small farmer, whole entire ftock did not amount to more than forty, had thirteen sheep and eleven lambs worried in one night.' We have known many inAtances of similar havoc.
Among the cultivated crops, two are mentioned which are not common, viz. Rape, and Tobacco. The first seems to have been long cultivated in the vale on an extensive plan; but, unless it be the peculiar practice of threshing it here in the field (a practice that may be confidered rather as a curiosity than as deserving imitation), we find nothing new under this head. The culture of tobacco was introduced into the vale about the year 1782, where it was brought to great perfection, and properly cured in the Virginia method, by a person who came from that part of America, But in the adjoining vale of York, where we are told greater quantities were raised, the tobacco was seized and burnt. Pe. nalties, it is said, were laid to the amount of thirty thousand pounds.' How often have we occasion to bewail the evils that a short-lighted attention to finance intails on the country! Were this the only instance that occurs, it might be tolerated, though it must be accounted a peculiar bardship; but the attentive observer can scarcely move a step without meeting with striking cases where the band of industry is stopt fort, and the prospe
* He takes notice, that since his observations were written, no fewer than seven persons were bitten by one dog, in that single town,' fhip, beside much live stock. What aggravated the evil was, that the owner of the dog knew he had been bit, and suffered him to go loose. Mr. Marshall seems to have some confidence in the practice of worming for preventing the canine madness. It is our duty to inform him, and the public, that we ourselves have had the most fatisfactory proof of the absolute inefficacy of that practice for preventing the disorder, H 4