Forest Development in Cold Climates

Front Cover
John Alden, J.Louise Mastrantonio, Soren ědum
Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 30, 1993 - Medical - 566 pages
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As forests decline in temperate and tropical climates, highly-developed countries and those striving for greater economic and social benefits are beginning to utilize marginal forests of high-latitude and mountainous regions for resources to satisfy human needs. The benefits of marginal forests range from purely aesthetic to providing resources for producing many goods and services demanded by a growing world population. Increased demands for forest resources and amenities and recent warming of high latitude climates have generated interest in reforestation and afforestation of marginal habitats in cold regions. Afforestation of treeless landscapes improves the environment for human habitation and provides for land use and economic prosperity. Trees are frequently planted in cold climates to rehabilitate denuded sites, for the amenity of homes and villages, and for wind shelter, recreation, agroforestry, and industrial uses. In addition, forests in cold climates reduce the albedo of the earth's surface in winter, and in summer they are small but significant long-lived sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Finally, growth and reproductive success of forests at their geographic limits are sensitive indices of climatic change. As efforts to adapt forests to cold climates increase, however, new afforestation problems arise and old ones intensify. Austral, northern, and altitudinal tree limits are determined by many different factors. Current hypotheses for high-latitude tree limits are based on low growing-season temperatures that inhibit plant development and reproduction.
  

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Contents

SOCIOECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS IN ICELAND
1
MOLECULAR BASES FOR ADAPTATION OF CONIFEROUS TREES TO COLD CLIMATES
15
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF NORTHERN FOREST TREES AS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE AND LIGHT
43
TESTING WINTER DESICCATION RESISTANCE FOR SPECIES AND PROVENANCE SELECTION AT TIMBERLINES
59
GROWTH OF MOUNTAIN BIRCH BETULA PUBESCENS EHRH IN RESPONSE TO CHANGING TEMPERATURE
65
IMPLICATIONS FOR AFFORESTATION
79
A REVIEW OF THE HYPOTHESES
89
PHYSIOLOGY OF TREES AT TREELINE
105
SELECTION AND BREEDING OF SCOTS PINE FOR NORTHERN SWEDEN
321
PROVENANCE AND INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN CLIMATIC HARDINESS OF SCOTS PINE IN NORTHERN FINLAND
333
HYBRIDIZATION AMONG PROVENANCES OF LODGEPOLE PINE
343
IMPLICATIONS FOR BREEDING AND REFORESTATION
357
CHLOROPLAST DNA DIVERSITY PHYLOGENETICS AND HYBRIDIZATION IN P1CEA
369
GENETIC VARIATION IN EARLY FROST TOLERANCE OF SPRUCE FROM NORTHWESTERN NORTH AMERICA
383
HISTORY OF TREE PLANTING ON THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS
393
AFFORESTATION OF LUTZ SPRUCE S1TKA SPRUCE AND NORWAY SPRUCE IN THE VESTERAALEN ISLANDS NORWAY
427

TREELINE IN RELATION TO CLIMATE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OCEANIC AREAS
115
PHYTOGEOGRAPHY DISPERSAL STRATEGIES AND SURVIVAL IN HIGH LATITUDE GLACIALDEGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS
135
PREDICTING AFFORESTATION SUCCESS DURING CLIMATIC WARMING AT THE NORTHERN LIMIT OF FORESTS
167
CLIMATE CHANGE AS SEEN BY TREES AND BY CLIMATE MODELERS
189
EFFECTS OF WIND ON BOREAL FORESTS
203
INITIAL RESULTS
227
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TREE POPULATIONS AT THEIR ARCTIC LIMITS
241
POTENTIAL SPECIES AND PROVENANCES FOR FOREST DEVELOPMENT IN COLD CLIMATES
251
SPECIES AND PROVENANCE CHOICE AT NORTHERN TREE LIMITS IN MARITIME CLIMATES
265
SEED COLLECTIONS FROM NORTH AMERICAN TREES FOR MARGINAL SITES IN THE NORDIC COUNTRIES
277
THE USES OF LIGNOSES IN HORTICULTURE IN ICELAND
293
ACCELERATING ADAPTATION OF TREES AT TREE LIMITS BY SELECTIVE BREEDING
299
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL FOREST AND ARBORETUM ON THE OUTER COAST OF FINNMARK COUNTY NORWAY
437
FOREST DEVELOPMENT IN ICELAND
453
POTENTIAL TREE LINE IN THE FAROE ISLANDS
463
FOREST TRIALS AT HIGH ELEVATIONS IN BRITAIN
475
A CASE STUDY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SILVICULTURE
491
THE ALPINE TIMBERLINE OF TIBET
511
FORESTRY IN NEW ZEALANDS SOUTHERN HIGH COUNTRY
529
SUMMARIES OF WORKING GROUP SESSIONS
549
SPECIES INDEX
555
SUBJECT INDEX
559
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